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FROM-THE- LIBRARY OF TRINITYCOLLEGETORONTO

FROM

THE WILLIAM CLARK MEMORIAL LIBRARY

DONATED 1 9 2 e A. D.

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BIBLICA

A DICTIONARY OF THE BIBLE

VOLUME II

ENCYCLOPAEDIA BIBLICA

A CRITICAL DICTIONARY OF THE LITERARY

POLITICAL AND RELIGIOUS HISTORY

THE ARCHEOLOGY GEOGRAPHY

AND NATURAL HISTORY

OF THE BIBLE

EDITED BY

THE REV. T. K. CHEYNE, M.A., D.D.

ORIEL PROFESSOR OF THE INTERPRETATION OF HOLY SCRIPTURE AT OXFORD

AND FORMERLY FELLOW OF BALLIOL COLLEGE

CANON OF ROCHESTER

J. SUTHERLAND BLACK, M.A., LL.D.

FORMERLY ASSISTANT EDITOR OF THE ' ENCYCLOPAEDIA BRITANNICA '

VOLUME II E to K

f|0rft THE MACMILLAN COMPANY

LONDON : ADAM AND CHARLES BLACK IQOI

All rights reserved

6s

COPYRIGHT, igoi, BY THE MACMILLAN COMPANY.

KEY TO SIGNATURES IN VOLUME II

Arranged according to the alphabetical order of the first initial, possible indicated thus ; A. B. §§ 1-5 ; C. D.

Joint authorship is where 3S 6-10.

A. B. B. BRUCE, the late Rev. A. B. , D.D.,

Professor of Apologetics and New Testament Exegesis, I-'ree Church College, Glasgow.

A. B. D. DAVIDSON, Rev. A. B. , D.D., Professor

of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, United Free Church New College, Edinburgh.

A. E. S. SHIPLEY, A. E., M.A., F.Z.S., Fellow,

Tutor, and Lecturer at Christ's College, Cambridge.

A. J. JULICHER, GUSTAV ADOLF, Professor of

Church History and New Testament Exegesis, Marburg.

A. R. S. K. KENNEDY, Rev. ARCHIBALD R. S., M.A. , D.D., Professor of Hebrew and Semitic Languages, Edinburgh.

C. C. CREIGHTON, C., M.D. , 34 Great Ormond

Street, London.

C. H. T. TOY, C. H., M.A. , Professor of Hebrew, Harvard University.

C. H. W. J. JOHNS, Rev. C. H. W., M.A., Assistant Chaplain, Queens' College, Cam bridge.

C. P. T. TIELE, C. P., D.D., Professor of the

Science of Religion, Leyden.

C. R. C. CONDER, Col. CLAUDE REIGNIER, R.E. , LL.D.

E. A. A. ABBOTT, Rev. E. A. , D. D. , Wellside, Well Walk, Hampstead, London.

E. K. KAUTZSCH, E., Professor of Old Testa

ment Exegesis, Halle.

E. P. G. GOULD, Rev. E. P. , D. D. , Philadelphia.

F. B. BROWN, Rev. FRANCIS, D.D., Daven

port Professor of Hebrew a"nd the cognate Languages in the Union Theological Seminary, New York.

G. A. D. DEISSMANN, G. ADOLF, D. D. , Professorof

New Testament Exegesis, Heidelberg.

G. A. S. SMITH, Rev. GEORGE ADAM, D.D. ,

LL.D., Professor of Hebrew and Old Testament Exegesis, United Free Church College, Glasgow.

G. B. G. GRAY, Rev. G. BUCHANAN, M.A.,

Professor of Hebrew, Mansfield College, Oxford.

G. F. M. MOORE, Rev. GEORGE F., D.D. , President and Professor of Hebrew in Andover Theological Seminary, And- over, Mass.

G. H. B. Box, Rev. G. H., M.A. (Oxon.),

London.

H. G. GUTHE, HERMANN, a.o. Professor of

Old Testament Exegesis, Leipsic.

H. v. S. SODEN, BARON HERMANN VON, Profes

sor of New Testament Exegesis, Berlin.

H. W. H. HOGG, HOPE W. , M.A., Lecturer in Hebrew and Arabic in Owens College, Manchester ; 4 Winchester Road, Oxford.

I. A. ABRAHAMS, ISRAEL, London, Editor of

the Jewish Quarterly Review.

I. B. BENZINGER, Dr. IMMANUEL, Lecturer

in Old Testament Theology, Berlin.

J. A. R. ROBINSON, Rev. J. ARMITAGE, D.D. ,

Canon of Westminster.

J. W. WELLHAUSEN, JULIUS, Professor of

Semitic Philology, Gottingen.

K. B. BUDDE, KARL, Professor of Old Testa

ment Exegesis and the Hebrew Language, Marburg.

K. M. MARTI, KARL, Professor of Old Testa

ment Exegesis and the Hebrew Lan guage, Berne.

Lu. G. GAUTIER, LUCIEN, Professor of Old

Testament Exegesis and History, Geneva.

M. A. C. CANNEY, MAURICE A., M.A. (Oxon.), St. Peter's Rectory, Saffron Hill, London, E.G.

M. G. CASTER, Dr. M. , 37 Maida Vale,

London, W.

M. J. (Jr.) JASTROW (Jun.), MORRIS, Ph.D., Pro fessor of Semitic Languages in the University of Pennsylvania.

M. R. J. JAMES, MONTAGUE RHODES, Litt.D., , Fellow and Dean of King's College,

Cambridge.

N. M. M'LEAN, NOKMAN, M.A. , Lecturer in

Hebrew, and Fellow of Christ's College, Lecturer in Semitic Languages at Caius College, Cambridge.

N. S. SCHMIDT, NATHANAEL, Professor of

Semitic Languages and Literatures, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York.

0. C. CONE, Rev. Professor ORELLO, D.D. ,

St. Lawrence University.

0. C. W. WHITEHOUSE, Rev. OWEN C. , M.A., Principal and Professor of Biblical Exegesis and Theology in the Countess of Huntingdon's College, Cheshunt, Herts.

P. V. VOLZ, Herr Repetant PAUL, Tubingen.

P. W. S. SCHMIEDEL, PAUL W. , Professor of

New Testament Exegesis, Zurich.

R. H. C. CHARLES, Rev. R. H., M.A., D.D.,

Professor of Biblical Greek in Trinity College, Dublin ; 17 Bradmore Road, Oxford.

S. A. C. COOK, STANLEY A., M.A. , Fellow of

Caius College, Cambridge ; Ferndale, Rathcoole Avenue, Hornsey, London, N.

S. R. D. DRIVER, Rev. SAMUEL ROLLES, D. D. ,

Regius Professor of Hebrew, Canon of Christ Church, Oxford.

T. G. P. PINCHES, THEOPHILUS G., M.R.A.S.,

formerly of the Egyptian and Assyrian Department in the British Museum.

KEY TO SIGNATURES IN VOLUME II

T. K. C. CHEYNE, Rev. T. R., M.A.. D.D., Oriel | W. H. K.

Professor of the Interpretation of Holy Scripture at Oxford, Canon of Ro- W. J. W. Chester.

T. N. NO'LDEKE.THEODOR, Professor of Semitic

Languages, Strassburg. W. M. M.

W. E. A. ADDIS, Rev. W. E., M.A. , Lecturer in Old Testament Criticism, Manchester College, Oxford. W. R. S.

W. H. B. BENNETT. Rev. W. H., M.A., Professor

of Biblical Languages and Literature, W. T. T.-D. Hackney College, London, and Pro fessor of Old Testament Exegesis, New College, London.

ROSTERS, The late W. H., Professor of Old Testament Exegesis, Leyden.

WOODHOUSE, W. J., M.A., F.R.G.S., Lecturer in Ancient History and Political Philosophy, St. Andrews.

MOLLER, W. MAX, Professor of Old Testament Literature, Reformed Epis copal Church Seminary, Philadelphia.

SMITH, The late W. ROBERTSON, Pro fessor of Arabic, Cambridge.

THISELTON-DYKR, Sir WILLIAM TUR NER. C.M.G..LL.D., F.R.S., Director Royal Gardens, Rew.

LIST OF CONTRIBUTORS TO VOLUME II

Arranged according to alphabetical order of surnames.

ABBOTT, E. A. ABRAHAMS, 1. ADDIS, W. E. BENNETT, W. H. BENZINGEK, I. Box, G. H. BROWN, !•'. BRUCE, A. B. BUDDE, R. CANNEY, M. A. CHARLES, R. H. CHEYNE, T. K. CONDEK, C. R. CONE, O. COOK, S. A. CREIGHTON, C. DAVIDSON, A. B. DEISSMANN, Ci. A.

E. A. A. LA.

W. E. A. W. H. B. I.E. G. H. B.

F. B. A. B. B. E. B. M. A. C. R. H. C. T. K. C. C. R. C. 0. C.

S. A. C. C. C. A. B. D.

G. A. D.

DRIVER, S. k. GASTEK, M. GAUTIER, Lu. GOULD, E. P. GRAY, G. B. GUTHE, H. HOGG, H. W. JAMES, M. R. J ASTRO w (Jun. ), M. JOHNS, C. H. W.

JULICHER, G. A.

RAUTZSCH, E. RENNEDY, A. R. S. ROSTERS, W. H.

M'LEAN. N.

MARTI, R. MOORE, G. F.

S. R. D.

MOLLER, W. M.

W. M. M.

M. G.

NOLDEKE, T.

T. N.

Lu. G.

PINCHES, T. G.

T. G. P.

E. P. G.

ROBINSON, J. A.

J. A. R.

G. B. G.

SCHMIDT, N.

N. S.

H. G.

SCHMIEDEL. P. W.

P. W. S.

H. W. H. SHIPLEY, A. E.

A. E. S.

M. R. J. i SMITH, G. A.

G. A. S.

M. J. (Jr.) SMITH, W. R.

W. R. S.

C. H. W. J.

SODEN, H. V.

H. v. S.

A. J.

THISELTON-DYER, W.T.

W.T. T.-D.

E. K.

TIELE, C. P.

C. P. T.

A. R. S. K.

TOY, C. H.

C. H. T.

W. H. K.

VOLZ, P.

P. V.

N. M.

WELLHAUSEN, J.

J. W.

K. M.

WHITEHOUSE, O. C.

0. C. W.

G. F. M.

WOODHOUSE, W. J.

W. J. W.

APK . Crit. Bib. . Ohnefals»h-Richter SMAW

ADDITIONAL ABBREVIATIONS

V. Spiegel, Die alt-persischen Keilinschriften, 1862, <2> '81.

Cheyne, Critica Diblica (in preparation).

M. H. Ohnefalsch-Richter, Kypros, die Bibel, und Homer, 1893.

Sitsungsberithte der Koniglicken Akademie der Wissenschaften, Munich.

MAPS IN VOLUME II

ASIA MINOR

Asia Minor .

EGYPT

Egypt Proper Valley of Nile Nile and Euphrates Geology of Egypt and Sinai Egypt and Sinai in Pluvial Period

EXODUS

The Exodus .... Goshen

GEOGRAPHY, HEBREW

(1) in the time of the Judges

(2) in the loth century B.C.

(3) in the 8th century B.C.

(4) in the 5th century B.C. j Strabo's Map of the World

JERUSALEM

Contours and Walls Site of Jerusalem

PALESTINE

Northern : Galilee and Esdraelon Central : Mount Ephraim . Southern : Judah and Judnea Eastern: Gilead and Ammon

between cols. 1592 and 1593

,, 1240 and 1241

,, 1208 and 1209

,, 1205 and 1206

col. 14377. col. 1759 /

between cols. 1696 and 1697 col. i6gif.

between cols. 2420 and 2421 col. 2410

between cols. 1632 and 1633 1312 and 1313 2620 and 2621 1728 and 1729

ENCYCLOPEDIA BIBLICA

E

EAGLE. The eagle of EV, the GREAT VULTURE of RVm£- (lyi ; deros), is identified by Tristram with Gyps fulvus, the Griffon, not a true Eagle but a member of the family Vulturidse. Griffons are still very common in Palestine, which is about the centre of their area of distribution, whence they spread across Asia, around the Mediterranean area and through Northern Africa.1 They are noble birds of large size, and form conspicuous objects in the landscape as towards evening they perch on the peaks of rocks or cliffs (Job 39 28 29), or when soaring. The comparison of invaders to a swooping vulture is often employed in the OT (cp Dt. 2849 Job 826 Hab. 18 Jer. 4840 etc.). They are carrion feeders and sight their food from afar. Their head and neck are bald, a fact which did not escape the notice of the prophet Micah (Mi. 1 16). They nest in colonies, some of which contain a hundred pairs of birds. They are said to be remarkably long-lived, probably attaining a century or more (allusions in Ps. 103s and perhaps [see 65] in Is. 4631). The Himyarites had an idol nasr which was in the form of a Vulture (cp ZDMG 29 600), and the same worship among the Arabs is attested by the Syriac Doctrine of Addai (Phillips, 24). 2

The Gr. aeros may be applied to vultures, and the Romans seem to have classed the eagle among the family Vulturidce (see Pliny, HN 10 3 13 23). Is there any connection between atTOS and 13 ]V (see BIRD, § i)? Possibly the bird found on the Assyrian sculptures (see the illustrations in Vigouroux, s.v. ' aigle ') and on the Persian (Xen. Cyr. vii. 1 4) and Roman (Plin. HN 13 23) standards is meant to represent not the true eagle but a vulture. In Christian art the Egyptian phoenix appears as an eagle and becomes a symbol of the resurrection (see Wiede- mann, Rel. qfAnc. Egyptians, 193). In the fifth century A.D. the eagle became an emblem of John the evangelist (see Diet, of Chr. Antiqq., s.v. 'Evangelists')- A. E. S. S. A. C.

EAGLE, GIER. See GIER EAGLE.

EANES (MANHC [BA]), i Esd. 9 21 = Ezra 10 21 MAASEIAH, ii. , n.

EARNEST (&PP&BCON). the warrant or security for the performance of a promise or for the ratification of an engagement, is used thrice in NT (z Cor. 122 5s Eph. Ii3/. ), but always in a figurative sense of the gifts of the Holy Spirit bestowed upon the apostles and Christians generally, as a pledge that they should obtain far greater blessings in the future. See PLEDGE.

EARRING. For Judg. 824 Prov. 25 12 etc. (D», nezem} and Ezek. 16 12 etc. (^jy, 'dgll) see RING, § 2, and for Prov. I.e. cp BASKET. For Is.32o etc. (em1?, IdhaH) see AMULETS, RING, § 2, and MAGIC, §3(3).

The tip of the ear (Tmn, tenuklf) was specially protected by sacred rites (see SBOTon Is. 66 17).

EARTH AND WORLD. The conception of ' universe ' is usually expressed in OT by ' heaven and

1 For hieroglyphic picture of vulture see EGYPT, § 9, n. 12.

2 Cp the Syriac name anniW C" NSR " gave'), and see We. Held. 20 (Heid.W 23), and WRS Kin. 209, Rel. Sem.V) 226, n. 3 ; ZDMG 40 186 ['86].

38 1145

earth' (e.g. , Gen. li 2i 14 19), though there is a still more complete expression : ' heaven above, earth beneath, and the water under the earth1 (Ex. 204, cp Gen. 4925). So in Assyrian eldti u Saplati 'things above and things below,' or (Creation -tablet, i. if.) ' the heaven above, the earth beneath,' to which 1. 3 adds ' the ocean.' There is also (Is. 4424 ; cp 45?) a general term ^3, 'everything' (iravra), corresponding to Assyr. kullatu, gimru.

' Earth ' of EV represents three Hebrew words. ( i )

jnx ('<?res), properly the earth, including Sheol ; hence

_. either the visible surface of our earth (Gen. 26,

, ' , , , and often) or the nether world (e.g. , Ex. 15 12

eartn. ls ^^ 294). (2) HCTN (dddmdh), [i.] the soil

which is tilled, Gen. 2s 817 etc., [ii.] the ground, Gen.

125 620 etc. (3) ~\'sy('dphar), properly earth as a material

(Gen. 27), then the earth (Is. 2 19), then dust (Gen.

814), then the nether world (Job 17 16 Ps. 30g [10] etc. ).

@ renders (but not universally) all three words by 777.

Whilst the AV uses ' world ' as a synonym for ' earth '

both in OT and in NT, it is only in NT (see below, § 3)

_,. that it occurs in the sense of 'universe.1

, ' . ,e, The reason is that Jewish writers had adopted

' a much more convenient term than ' heaven

and earth ' to express an expanded conception of the

' universe. '

First, however, let us note the Heb. words rendered ' world. '

1- Tj$i heled, Ps. 17 14 49 2 [i]. If the text is correct, we have here a singularly interesting transition from ' lifetime ' to ' the world of living men ' ; for the primary sense of heled (if the word exists at all) is ' life-time ' (Ps. 396 [5], 8948 [47], Job 11 17 and emended text of 10 20).! Unfortunately heled in Ps. 17 14 is certainly corrupt. ' From men of the world whose portion is in life ' is an expression both obscure in itself and unsuitable to the context. In Is. 38 ii heled is read only by critical con jecture ; the text has hedel, which means neither ' world ' nor any thing else : there is no such word.- The true reading is doubtless tcbel ' world,' and so too we should read in Ps. 49 2 [i]. Hymn- writers do not generally select the rarest and most doubtful words. There is but one pure Hebrew word for ' world ' (see 3).

2- '!!!?, hedel, Is.' 38 ii, on the assumption that 'cessation' (the supposed meaning) is equivalent to ' fleeting world.' Many critics, with some MSS, including Cod. Bab., read "Pn, heled. See, however, no. i.

3. 73B, tebel, ' mother-earth ' ? a word of primitive mytho logical origin (Gunkel, Hommel), hence never occurring with the article. Once it is used in antithesis to midbar, ' desert ' (Is. 14 17) ; but generally it is quite synonymous with '/res, ' earth.' Thus in i S. 2 8 (RV)—

1 In Job 11 17 it is an improvement to read "]~J:>n T3', ' the days of thy lifetime (shall be brighter than noontide),' and in 10 20 'iVn, ' Are not the days of my lifetime few ? ' but we should most probably read -tart and »Vart, 'thy fleeting days.' (Che. Exp. Times, 10381 ['99]).

2 Cp Ps. 39 5 [4], where EV has ' how frail I am,' but where the Hebrew has, not 'frail, 'but 'ceasing' (Dr. Parallel Psalter). "rin, hddel, too, is probably not a real word.

1146

EARTH AND WORLD

For the pillars of the earth are Yahwe's, And he hath set the world upon them ; And Prov. 8 26 (RV),

While as yet he had not made the earth, nor the fields, Nor the beginning of the dust of the world.1 In Job 37 12 RV we have the strange expression ' the habitable world' (AV 'the world in the earth'); and in Prov. 831 RV ' his habitable earth ' (AV ' the habitable part of his earth '). The phrases are the same, and are due to corruption of the text.'^ <& impartially renders both rn« and ^n sometimes by yij sometimes by rj oiieou^ie'n/.

4- D^iy. 'oldm, a difficult word, meaning (i) antiquity, (2) indefinite length of time. The etymology is doubt ful. Most connect it with c^y, ' to hide ' ; but probably D- -dm is a noun-ending (so Earth). Compare Ass. tillu, ' remote, ' in the phrase ultu ulld ' from of old ' ; ulldnu 'far-off time,' i.e. , 'past time' (Del. Ass. HWB f>4/.). For a less probable view, see Lag. Uebers. 115. Twice rendered 'world' in AV : Ps. 73 12, ' Behold these are the ungodly, who prosper in the world,' RV (better) 'and being alway at ease' (D^iy '1^?n) I Eccles. 3n (so also RV), 'Also he hath set the world in their heart' (<5H, cr6/j.iravTa. rbv aiwva), a riddle which admits of more than one solution (see Che. Job and Solomon, 210). However, even if man is a microcosm we cannot expect to find this advanced idea in Ecclesiastes, and the occurrence of 'oldm, 'world,' in Sirach is improbable. Ha oldm needs to be emended. 3 We must give up the ' micro cosm ' and the ' desiderium seternitatis ' and take in exchange an assurance that the ' travail ' of the student of God's works is good : ' I have seen the travail which God has given to the sons of men to exercise themselves there with. He has made everything beautiful in its time; also he has suggested all that travail (pprr^STlK ; © attests Va) to the sons of men (read Q-JN '33^, not '^30 Da^a).

By NT times the word 'oldm must have received the

new meaning ' world, ' for aldiv = n^iy is used in this sense.

. We can doubtless trace this new develop-

',. ...e.am?° ment to the rise (under Persian stimulus)

of olam in f , ,•/•••

fjm i- of a belief in 'new heavens and a new

times. eartll' ^see EscHATOLOGY, § 88, and cp Che. Intr. Is. 370 ; OPs. 405), and the intercourse of educated Jews with Greek-speaking neighbours would confirm the usage. It is true the sense of ' time ' is not entirely lost ; but a new sense has been grafted on the old. ' This 'oldm ' is not merely ' this age' ; but the earth which is the theatre of the events of ' this age, ' and ' the coming 'oldm ' is not merely the great future period in itiated by the Divine Advent, but the new earth which will be the theatre of the expected great events. Hence the author of Hebrews can even say (Heb. 12), 'By whom also he made the worlds ' (TOVS aiuvas ; Del. and Biesenthal niDSiynN), and again (Heb. 11 3), ' we under stand that the worlds (ol auDves) have been framed by the word of God.' The phrase ol alwves means, not the ages of human history (as in Heb. 926, cp i Cor. 10n), but the material worlds which make up the universe4 (iravra., Heb. 1 2 ; TO @\firofj.fvoi>, 11 36).

On the Jewish references to the two 'olilmlin see Dalman, Die Worte Jesu (1898, pp. 121 ff.~), where it is pointed out that the famous saying ascribed to Simeon the Righteous (circa 280 B.C.), respecting the three things on which ' the world ' (aViyrt) rests, cannot be authentic. Dalman also denies that Enoch 486 49 idff. 71 15, where the creation of ' the world ' is referred to, belong to the original Book of the Similitudes. As to 71 15 there can be no question ; chap. 71 is ' most certainly a later addition ' (Charles). At any rate, 45 5 refers to the renovation

1 The text needs emendation (see next note). Read probably, Ere he had made the land and the grass (-rxm) And had clothed with green (NBH<I) the clods of mother-earth. P See Che. JQR, Oct. 1897, pp. i6/

3 The latest commentator (Siegfried, 1898) holds that D7Jn means ' the future ' ; but this is hardly to be proved by 2 t6 3 14 96 12$. Somewhat more plausible, but still improbable, is Dalman's paraphrase, ' die unabsehbare Weltzeit.'

* Note also that oi/covjueVr) in Heb. 2 5 corresponds to alwv in C 5 (Dalman).

1147

EARTH (FOUR QUARTERS)

of the heaven and the earth, on which see above. In 72 i 73 3 8 82 i 5 7, the conception of the created world no doubt occurs, and in 4 Ezra ' saeculum ' (Syr. NoVj?) occurs frequently. From the end of the first century A.D. onwards Q->IJ; is used so often in the sense of ' world ' that we cannot doubt its universality. It has even penetrated into the older Targums. Cp 6 TOU KOO>OU /3acriA.evs (2 Mace. 7 9); 6 xvpios TOU KOOOU (2 Mace. 1814); oWirdnK irdo-ijs rijs KTiVeus (3 Mace. 2 2). ' Lord of the world ' occurs in Enoch 81 9 ; Ass. Mos. 1 n ; Jubil. 2023. These and similar appellations are never found in NT (Dalman, 142). In the NT we find (a) 77 olKovpfrr), (6) 6 /cicr/xos, (c)

.

(a) TI OIK. is the habitable globe (Mt. 24 14 Rom. 10 18 etc.) ;

also the Roman Empire (Acts 17 6) ; also =

4. Terms for al^v (Heb. 2 5), see above 3).

' earth ' and (b) 6 KOO-/XOI is the earth, or its inhabitants

'World1 in NT. ((*••• Mt. 48 5i4 Mk. 16i5l Jn 129); also

the universe (TO o\oi> TOUTO, JPlat. Gorg. 408

A), as in ctTrb <ca.Taj3oAi7« KOO-JU.OV (e.g., Mt. 1835 [not in best

MSS.], cp 24 21) ; also with OUTOS= ' this 'oldm ' (Jn. 1 12, opp.

to fwij aiwcios ; so Jn. 18 36 i Cor. 3 19, 5 10 and Eph. 2 2, where

note the strange compound phrase Kara. TOV a'uava. TOU xoV/xov

TOVTOU). 6 KOO-JUOS without OUTOS in i Jn. 215^ 817; and in

the derived sense of ' worldlings ' (cp the phrase, too probably

incorrect, "l££P CTlp in Ps. 17 14). With OUTOS in Jn. 1231

14 30 [not Ti.] 16 ii i Cor. 819; without OUTOS in Jn. 771 Cor.

1 21 and often. Hence the adjective KOO-JOUKOS ; in Heb. 9i, TO ayiov Koo>uK6V as opposed to the heavenly antitype of the tabernacle ; Tit. 2 12.

(c) KTi'o-ts, the universe (cp Wisd. 617 19 6), Mk. 106 13 19 ;

2 Pet. 3 4 Col. 1 15 Rev. 3 14. In Heb. 9 n ' this KTI'O-IS,' and in Gal. 6152 Cor. 5 17, Kaiyri KTC'O-IS. The latter phrase, however, is applied morally and spiritually (cp Jn. 857 Rom. 64, and the phrase /caivb? avSpiairos . . ., Eph. 215 424). In the sense of ' the coming 'oldm ' it does not occur in NT (but see Enoch 72 1 Jubil. 1 29 ; and cp Bar. 32 6 4 Ezra 7 75). We have the new heavens and the new earth, however, in 2 Pet. 813 Rev. 21 1 ; and if we had to render ev TTJ TroAiyyei'eo-i.'iji (Mt. 19 28) into Aramaic or Hebrew we should have to follow Pesh. which gives ' in the new world ' (KD*?y)- The Greek phrase quoted is, in Dalman's words, 'the property of the evangelist." On 'the elements of the world ' (thrice in NT) see ELEMENTS. T. K. C.

EARTH (FOUR QUARTERS). Like the Baby

lonians, the Hebrews divided the world (i.e. , earth

, . and heaven) into four parts. We find

16 the phrase 'the four skirts (nisia,1 Divisions.

TTT^pvyes) of the earth,' Is. 11 12 Ezek.

7 2, cp JobSTsSSis; and in Rev.7i 208, 'the four corners (yuviai) of the earth.' Probably, too, 'the four ends (nisp) of the earth ' could be said ; cp Jer. 4936, ' the four ends of the heaven.' The four quarters could be described also as 'the four winds' (as in Ass.): see Ezek. 37 9 (especially), Dan. 88 11 4 Zech. 26[io] iCh. 924 Mt. 2431. Similarly, 'to all winds' means 'in all directions' (Jer. 4932 Ezek. 61012, etc.). The east was called 'the front' (en/:) ; the west, 'the back part ' (ninx) ; the south, ' the right ' (pp' ; Aq. Sym., 5e%idv [Ps. 89 13]); and the north, 'the left' (^XDK1). The N. is called also pss, which is perhaps to be compared with Ar. saban (from sabawun, east wind, E).2 The S. is also D'vn (root uncertain) ; the E. usually rnip, ' the (region of the) sun-rising,' and the W. either tr, 'the sea,'3 or mj?p, 'the (region of the) sunset'; sometimes also (^.^. , i Ch. 924), improperly, 3.3ji strictly the ' dry ' S. region of Palestine ; see, further, GEOGRAPHY, § 2. We now turn to the appli cation and associations of the several terms.

2 North North and south are applied (a) to and South cluarters of tne heavens. So Job 26? ' ' (crit. emend. )

1 Cp the Ass. phrase kippat same irsitim, usually, ' the ends of heaven and earth ' (Del. Ass. HWB, s.v. rps). The ideogram SAG-GUL, however, elsewhere =sikkftni, 'bar' (Del.) or possibly ' hinge ' (Stucken). Perhaps the Ass. phrase means ' the bars (or hinges) of heaven and earth ' (Stucken, Astralmythen, 1 38), and consequently the parallel Hebrew phrase ' the bars (or hinges) of earth.'

2 So Earth, Etym. Stud. 26 ; Ko. Lehrg. 2 128 ; but cp GEOGRAPHY, § 2. At any rate fgs is ' to hide,' not ' to be hidden.' 'East' in Hebrew may mean NE. The interchange of 3 and 3 is, of course, no difficulty.

3 <B nearly always renders D^, 6d\a<rcra., even where ' west is meant.

1148

EARTH (POUR QUARTERS)

(Before him) who had stretched the north region (of the

heavens) upon space, Who has suspended the earth upon nothing.1

The passage has been well explained (after Del. ) by Davidson : 2 ' The northern region of the heavens, with its brilliant constellations, clustering round the pole, would naturally attract the eye, and seem to the beholder to be stretched out over the " empty place, " i.e. , the vast void between earth and heaven.' See DEAD, § 2 (a) for an explanation of the context. The N. region of the heavens is the ' station ' of Bel. Also Job 37g (crit. emend.),

From the chambers of the south (comes) the storm,

And from the north-star cold,

(When) by the breath of God ice is given,

And the wide waters are straitened.*

There is no ' south pole ' in Babylonian astronomy corresponding to the north pole (cp Jensen, Kosmol. 25) ; but there is a region of Ea, and this is called in Job ' the south, ' as the region of Bel is called ' the north.' The constellations in the region ('path') of Ea are called ' the chambers of the south. '

EV has in v. gl>, 'And cold out of the north.' ' North ' = D'lID, which Ges. Di. explain (after Kimhi) as ' the scattering ' a name for the north winds, which dispel clouds and bring cold. Not very natural. We evidently require a constellation. The Heb. m2zari»i may perhaps be the Ass. (kakkab) inisri. Read 'IB'D \ 'he corruption was caused by a reminiscence of mazzdroth.* The (kakkab) miSri, which we provisionally translate, with Hommel, the 'north-star,' was associated with ' cold, hail (?), and snow ' by the Babylonians (Jensen, Kosmol. 50). Vg. ab Arcturo ; <@ 0.77-6 aicpwnjpiW (read apxTwait). On Ezek. 14 Eccles. 16, see WINDS.

N. and S. are applied (6) to quarters of the earth. Ps. 89 12, ' The north and the south, thou hast created them. ' Here ' north and south ' represent all the four quarters of the earth.

The N. was encompassed with awe for the Hebrew.

(1) From the N. came the invaders of Palestine, and ' the north ' is a symbolic term for Assyria (Zeph. 213), or Babylonia (Jer. 1 14 466102024 Ezek. 267 Judith 164).

(2) Religious considerations added to the feeling of awe. In the mountainous north th« people localised the 'mountain of El5him,' of which tradition spoke (Ezek. 14 Is. 14 13; some would add Ps. 48 2 [3]); and since God dwelt there, a poet says that manifestations of God's glory came from the N. (Job 37 22, crit. emend. : see CONGREGATION, MOUNT OF, and cp BAAL- ZEPHON, i). According to Ewald (Alterth. 59), this was the reason why sacrificial victims were to be slain 'before Yahwe1 on the north side of the altar (Lev. In). Yet, according to the older Israelitish view, which lasted into post-exilic times, the sacred mountain of Yahwe was not in the N. but in the S. The •mountain of God' was Horeb (Ex. 3i 4 27, etc.); Yahwe's progress into Canaan was from Seir (Judg. 64 cp Dt. 882), or, as a late Psalmist says, from Teman (Hab. 83). See WINDS.

Of E. and W. less has to be said. East and west, in Mt. 811, represent all the four quarters of the

earth> like ' north and south in Ps-

east

west ' 's a

3. East and

West

symbolic expression for an immense dis

tance (Ps. 103 12). When all mankind unite in festivity, ' thou makest the outgoings of morning and evening to ring out their joy ' (Ps. 658 [9], Driver). The expression has been admired ; but it is only the morning sun that 'goes forth.' The true reading, could we recover it, would probably be finer.5 The Babylonians believed that the celestial vault had two gates, one by which the sun ' went forth ' in the morning, and another by which

1 flD'^a is commonly taken to be a compound (Ko. Lehrg. 2418), but without any adequate grounds. The right reading must be D'73n ; the plur., to express 'intense vanity1 (cp Eccles. 1 2).

2 Budde and Duhm, perhaps unwisely, follow Dillmann.

3 Che. JBL 17 io5/: ['98].

4 Ibn Ezra (and so Michaelis) identified mezdrim with MAZZAROTH and MAZZALOTH (gq.v.). Aq. has u.a.Covp.

5 See Che. Ps.M, ad loc.

"49

EARTHQUAKE

he ' came in ' in the evening. In the E. was the isle of the blessed, with Par(?)-napisti, the hero of the Deluge-story ; in the E. , too, was the Hebrew paradise (Gen. 28). The W. had no such pleasing associations, for there was the entrance of the realm of the dead ; * there, too, the great Lightgiver disappeared.

Still, a Psalmist in the full confidence of faith can declare (Ps. 1399, crit. emend.),

If I lifted up the wings of the sun,2

And alighted at the utmost part of the west (D' lit. sea),

Even there thy hand would seize me,3

Thy right hand would grasp me.

He does not say (as MT and AV may suggest) 'would lead me to my own peace and happiness.' At any rate, it is much that he is not cut away from Yahwe's hand. He whom God grasps cannot go to destruction. T_ K. C.

EARTHENWARE. See POTTERY.

EARTHQUAKE (B?in, ceiCMOC, cyNceiCMOC- Syria and Palestine abound in volcanic appearances (cp PALESTINE). Between the river Jordan and Damascus lies a volcanic tract, and the entire country about the Dead Sea presents unmistakable tokens of volcanic action and of connected earthquake shocks vaster and grander than any that are known, or can be imagined, to have occurred in the historic period. At the same time, the numerous allusions in the Bible to phenomena resembling those of earthquakes show that the writers were deeply impressed by the recurrence of severe seismic shocks. Not improbably some of these were recorded in the lost royal annals.

i. Real or supposed historical earthquakes. (a)

1 S. 14 15 'And there was a terror in the camp, in the 1. Real or sup- garrison- and amonS a11 the P^ple,

posed historical and the raiders also wer<! terrified-'4 earthquakes. lhlf was on account of Jonathan s exploit. Suddenly ' the earth quaked, whence there arose a supernatural terror.' Doubtful. (b] Am. 1 1 prophecy of Amos, ' two years before the earthquake.' Doubtful. On this and on (c) see AMOS, §4. Josephus (Ant. ix. 104) draws on his imagination, (c) Zech. 14s 'Ye shall flee as ye fled before the earth quake in the days of Uzziah king of Judah. ' A post-exilic notice, (d} Am. 4 1 1 ' I have wrought an overthrow among you, as at the overthrow of Sodom and Gomorrah.' Historical, (e) Jos. Ant. xv. 5 2. In the seventh year of the reign of Herod, there was an earthquake in j'udaea, ' such as had not happened at any other time, and brought great destruction upon the cattle in that country. About ten thousand men also perished by the fall of houses. ' The calamity encouraged the Arabs to acts of aggression (see HEROD). For later catastrophes see Renan, L'Ante- christ, 336.

ii. Unhistorical narratives. (a) Gen. 1925 'and he overthrew those cities.' Possibly implying a primitive

2 Unhistorical tra<^'t'on °f an earthquake. See, how- narratives ever' DiIImann and CP SODOM. (6) The

giving of the Law(Ex. 19i8). (c) Story of Korah (Nu. 1631). (d) Elijah at Horeb (i K. 19n). It is the earthquake that the pious imagination constantly associates with a theophany. See ELIJAH, § 2. (e) The crucifixion. ' The earth quaked ; and the rocks were rent ; and the tombs were opened,' when Jesus ' yielded up his spirit ' (Mt. 27 si/. ). Not in the other gospels. Accord ing to Mk. , the cry which Jesus uttered when he gave up the ghost so impressed the Roman centurion that he exclaimed, ' Truly this was a Son of God' (Mk. 1639 RVm&-). Mt. , however, explains this confession as the result of fear at the earthquake and the accompanying phenomena. Similar portents are said to have marked

1 Cp Karppe, Journ. asiat. 9 139 ('97).

2 MT has "in^, ' the dawn ' ; but of a bird of the dawn we know nothing ; and how does the dawn alight in the west ? Read surely Din (Job 9 7), and cp Mai. 3 20 [4 2].

3 Reading '3n^B (Gra., Duhm).

4 The text is corrupt. See SLING.

EAST, CHILDREN OP THE

the death of Julius Caesar, revered as a demigod (Virg. Georg. \w\ff.} However, the evangelist may have thought not only of the divinity of Christ but also of the exceptional wickedness of those who put Christ to death. ' Shall not the land tremble for this, and every one mourn that ilwelleth therein?' (Am. 8 8). (/) Paul and Silas at Philippi (Acts 16 26). The essence of the story is that I'.ml and Silas were praying with such earnestness that all in the prison could hear, and that an extraordinary answer to prayer was granted. No stress is laid on the earthquake.

The references in prophecy and poetry are imagin ative in character and symbolise the dependence of the earth on its Creator : Judg. 64 Am. 88 Hos. 4s Is. 296 Ezek. 38 19/ Joel 2io Nah. Is Hab. 36 Zech. 144 Ps. 187 [8] 296 974 H44 Rev. 61285 Ili3l6'8.

Jerome (on Is. 15) writes of an earthquake which, in the time

of his childhood (circa 315 A.U.), destroyed Rabbath Moab or

Areopolis (see AR). Mediaeval writers also

3. Later earth- Spc.ik of earthquakes in Pajestine, stating

quakes in that they were not only formidable, but also

Palootino frequent. That of 1202 (or 1204) was among

the worst. Baalbek, being so near the

Lebanon and Antilibanus, has always suffered much from

earthquakes; that of 1759 did great damage to the ruins. In

1834 an earthquake shook Jerusalem and injured the chapel of

the Nativity at Bethlehem. The great earthquake of 1837

(Jan. i) did little harm at Jerusalem, which was not near enough

to the centre of disturbance. Safed and Tiberias, however, were

nearly destroyed. Cp Tristram, Land of Israel, 581.

T. K.C.

EAST, CHILDREN OF THE (Dlf) M3 ; 01 yioi K€Ae/v\ [BXAQ]) is a general term for the people, whether Bedawln or pastoral tribes, of the country E. (or NE., Gen. 29 1 AN&TOAcON [ADEL]) of Palestine, who were regarded by the Israelites as near relations, descended from Abraham by Hagar, Keturah, and other concubines (Gen. 256 D"l£ ]HN ; eic fHN ANATOAooN [ADEL]). For textual criticism see REKEM.

In Ezek. 264 («[«5]i)[/x]rvid.) I0 they appear to the E. of Ammon and Moab (crj Is. 1114); in Jer. 4928 they are men tioned with the Kedarites. In Judg. 8 10 (aXKo$v\<av [B], viol ai'aroAoii' [AL]) the phrase has a wider reference, including all the Bedouin (Moore), and in Job 1 3 (riav a<f>' TjAi'ou avaroMav IBNA]), i K. 430 [5io](ira.i'TiavapxaCtaviLV0p<aw<av['B\L])lt seems to include the Edomites, for the Edomites of Teman were re nowned for their wisdom. Cp MAHOL. T. K. C.

EAST GATE (rn{»n 1WJ>), Neh. 829. See JERU SALEM.

EASTEE (TO TTACX&). Actsl24 AV. See PASS OVER, and cp FEASTS.

EASTWIND (DHjrn-n), Ex. 10 13. See WINDS, EARTH (FOUR QUARTERS), and GEOGRAPHY, § i.

EBAL (?T|? ; plausibly connected with Bel by Wi. Gf 1 120 n. 2 ; Gray, Acad, aoth June 1896 ; r-AjBHA [BADEL] ; cp EBAL, MOUNT).

1. One of the sons of Shobal b. Seir the Horite ; Gen. 8623 i Ch. 1 40 (yao/3i)A. [A], ovjSaA [L]).

2. A son of Joktan i Ch. 122 (where eleven MSS [Kenn.] and Pesh. read "?aiN ; om. B, ye/xtai/ [A], r)/3j)A [L], Jos. Ant. 1.64 T)/3aAo« ; HEBAL). In Gen. 1028 the name appears as OHAL (VjiV, Sam. 'n'J?, om. ADE ; euoA [MSS ; see HP], ye/3aA [Compl., MSS], yai/3oA [L] ; EBAL). Halevy connects with the local name' Abil in Yemen (Mtl. 86). Cp Glaser, Skizze, 2426. The name may be a miswritten form of ^ND^N, which follows (Che.).

EBAL, MOUNT ?yu 1H ; OROC r<MB&A [BAFL] ; Jos. Ant. v. 1 19 HBhAoc [>• i fHBHAoc] ; Ant. iv. 844 Bo YAH ; MO.VS HKBAL}. Possibly Ebal should be Ebel ; -bel may be a divine name, ' ... of Bel. ' The dedication of a mountain to Bel in primitive times would not be surprising. Cp Ebal (above), Harbel (Num. 34 n, see RIBLAH). There is of course no connection between Ebal (i, above) ben Seir and Mount Ebal.

Ebal is a mountain 3077 ft. above the sea-level, which, with Gerizim (on the south), incloses the fertile valley in which Shechem lies. Both the mountains and the city were doubtless sacred from remote antiquity. There is an indication of this, so far as regards Ebal, in the

EBER

direction respecting the solemn curse to be deposited there, ready to fall on the disobedient ( Dt. 11 29 cp 2713-26), and respecting the placing of the great stones inscribed with the (Deuteronomic) Law and the erection of an altar to Yahwe on the same mountain (Dt.2?4-8). The latter passage is specially important. As Kuenen (Hex. 128) and Driver (Dt. 295) have pointed out, there was an injunction respecting a national sacrifice on Mt. Ebal 1 in the older work (JE) upon which the late Deuteronomic writer builds. The view that any disparagement to Ebal was intended by Dt. 1129 is therefore in itself improbable, nor can it be said that the mountain is even now sterile to the degree which a popular prejudice demands.

Maundrell in 1697 observed that ' neither of the mountains has much to boast of as to their (its) pleasantness.' Corn grows on the southern slopes, and there are traces of a thorough system of irrigation in ancient times.1' Mt. Ebal is 228 ft. higher than Mt. Gerizim, and commands a more extensive view, which is fully described by G. A. Smith (HG 119-123). Its position was thoroughly but not unnaturally misunderstood by Eus. and Jer. On this and other points, see GERIZIM. In the Pap. Anast.