a a lin et et i tp 8 Mi



\ *







P. J. SELBY, Ese., F.L.S., GEORGE JOHNSTON, MD., CHARLES C. BABINGTON, Ese., M.A., F.L.S., F.GS., J. H. BALFOUR, M.D., Prof. Bot. Edinburgh,







SwWOnal Museu

“Omnes res create sunt divine sapientie et potentie testes, divitiz felicitatis humanz :—ex harum usu bonitas Creatoris; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini; ex ceconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis elucet. Earum itaque indagatio ab hominibus sibi relictis semper zstimata; a veré eruditis et sapientibus semper exculta; malé doctis et barbaris semper inimica fuit.”’— LINNZUS.

5 ID - .. . . The sylvan powers Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs That press with nimble step the mountain thyme And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, But scatter round ten thousand forms minute Of velvet moss or lichen, torn from rock Or rifted oak or cavern deep: the Naiads too Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles, Where peril waits the bold adventurer’s tread, The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, All, all to us unlock their secret stores And pay their cheerful tribute. J. Taytor, Norwich, 1818.





NUMBER XXXII. Page I, Outlines of a Monograph of the genus Leontodon. By Joun Av, MRI. Als sak ecto: wad ieve de ce des snact sbetasthoc cbecmendssacdsekets. sete 1

IL. Description of Asplanchna priodonta, an animal of the Class Rotifera. By Pumir Henry Gosse, A.L.S., M.M.S. (With two Plates.) ...ccesceseveeceee dualavas bomb oGhGa 9 onne nbassWea cana sbagniah conus shaissbanen « 18

III. Description of the Entomostraca of the Pleistocene Beds of Newbury, Copford, Clacton, and Grays. By T. Rurerr Jongs, Esq. RVWAEEE i RIeSNt "achennclcecencnseccasccessannceactancetecnceeasanat ak eeedeaesaaas « 25

IV. Observations on the Lacune. By Wirttam Crark, Esq. ...... 29

V. On Scopolia, Anisodus and Mandragora. By Joun Miers, Esq., RE ira, eles wan dochoncs-cawneces seems ceaees scklauauhrsawsaaerienrcenees eiecns) cad

VI. Descriptions of Aphides. By Francis Warker, F.L.S. ......... 41

New Books :—An Elementary Course of Geology, Mineralogy, and Physical Geography, by D. T. Ansted, M.A., F.R.S. &e.—An Arctic Voyage to Baffin’s Bay and Lancaster Sound in search of friends with Sir John Franklin, by Robert A. Goodsir ......... 48—51

Proceedings of the Zoological Society; Botanical Society of Edin- [oo ear oee Preee reer Ft Bere grec eer H Sab naprideea oki sauce thie velar 51—66

Notes on Medusz and Polypes, by T. H. Huxiey, Esq. ; On the Circu- latory Apparatus and the Organs of Respiration in the Arachnida, by M. Emile Blanchard ; Long-suspended Vitality of a Snail, by W. Baird, Esq.; Way in which Toads shed their skins, by Prof. Henslow ; On the Habitat of Cyprea umbilicata, Sowerby, by Ronald Gunn, Esq.; Glyceria pedicellata; Supplementary Note to Mr. R. Jones’s paper on Fossil Entomostraca; Erratum in Mr. Owen’s Notes on the Hippopotamus ; Meteorological Observations BUG Fables s deassccdeevacce see shu sdn ocd ohud utanne repays fay ke sees tts’ 66—72



Page VII. Chronological Exposition of the Periods of Vegetation and the different Floras which have successively occupied the surface of the Earth. By M. ADOLPHE BRONGNIART csscesssconsesersrcererenesecereceee 73

VIII. Description of Lerneonema Bairdii. By Dr. James SALTER. (With a Plate.) ...sccssessereeeceeeenereceeernecneees Santee eeeeinst sesescarb orn 85

IX. Observations on Furcellaria fastigiata, Huds., and Polyides rotundus, Gmel. By Dr. Rossrt Caspary. (With three Plates.) ... 87

X. Observations on the Animals of the Bullide. By Witiiam CLARK, Esq. cccecesessscererccetertens sinfllodebaacsteveuacsneaneneshs@ewevesaba =e 98

XI. Notes on Crustacea. By C. Spence Barz. (With a Plate.)... 109

XII. On the different modes of Aquatic Respiration in Insects. By M. Léon Durour ......+ ep eer palcinse sensenasns sap smuswnacabesessea¥s oxeaaper eee 112

XIII. Descriptions of Aphides. By Francis Wauxer, F.L.S. ... 118

New Books :—The Tourist’s Flora: a descriptive Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Ferns of the British Islands, France, Ger- many, Switzerland, Italy, and the Italian Islands, by Joseph Woods, F.A.S., F.L.S., F.G.S.—Zoology for Schools, by Robert TEAGETREIN. - poqondadapoasancconosconqoodangasIded%09dnaCgDORGOC dosatiaad: 122—124

Proceedings of the Royal Society; Zoological Society ; Botanical So- ciety of Edinburgh ......... BNeass DERe eRe aphasien ss tas omnaen euate 125—143

The Velvet-like Periostraca of Trigona, by J. E. Gray, Esq.; Mon- strous Flowers of Pelargoniums; The Transformation of Mollusca, by J. E. Gray, Esq. ; Notice of the occurrence of Eleocharis uni- glumis, Link, near Blackness Castle, Linlithgowshire, by John T. Syme, Esq. ; On the Names of the Victoria Water Lily, by J. E. Gray, Esq.; On the Organization of the Malacobdelle, by M. Emile Blanchard ; Monograph of the recent species of 7'rigonia, including the description of a new species from the Collection of H. Cuming, Esq., by Arthur Adams, R.N., F.L.S. &c. ; Obituary —The Rev. William Kirby; Meteorological Observations and TAbIe 2ecs2assceceecps opacsenneve nde eguinw ere sh cbatcine -hoteeeatita eee paae 143—152

NUMBER XXXIII. XIV. The Natural Relations between Animals and the Elements in pyuien they live... By Li. AGsassiz goncecncss asenesetnan hen cun Meaaspesacewcucch 153 ©

XV. On the genus Habrothamnus. By Joun Miers, Esq., F.R.S., BELG wrsseceoasicesevnseaveessecevarsnenraasnenpeare Guana qusmsiiveb clair ek veveee 180


Page XVI. On the effects produced by some Insects, &c. upon Plants. By James Harpy, Penmanshiel ............+4 “Sear per soccer pepet pe Soc eee 182 XVII. Remarks on some British species of Carex. By W. O. Rrra ree Wall GEE eo etna denvcaitsus scacnsaccssdocnsbaamencgearaseehays mendsngae wists:

XVIII. Chronological Exposition of the Periods of Vegetation and the different Floras which have successively occupied the surface of the Earth. ; By M. ApoLPHe BRONGNIART ..scossscessencesntecetocesccecovess 192

XIX. On the position of the Impressions of Footsteps in the Bunter Sandstone of Dumfries-shire. By Roserr Harkness, Esq. ....... veeee 203

XX. Note to Mr. Harkness’s paper on The position of the Im- pressions of Footsteps in the Bunter Sandstone of Dumfries-shire.” By Sin W. JARDINE, Barts! “<.2cc.cadeeess RMS 2. case Wy dasha aut aasacesicabuley 208

New Books :—A Sketch of the Physical Structure of Australia, by J. Beete Jukes, M.A., F.G.S.—Outlines of British Geology ... 210, 211

Proceedings of the Zoological Society......ccssssesesseccesecceceseces 212—227

On the Visual Organ of the Annelida, by M. A. de Quatrefages ; New Classification of Trilobites; The Nepaul Bear, Ursus Babella, Horsfield; Description of a new species of the geuus 7’hracia, by Dr. Jonas; Remark on the genus Nocticula of J. V. Thompson, by J. D. Dana; Meteorological Observations and Table ... 227—232


XXI. On the Hedge Plants of India, and the conditions which adapt them for special purposes and particular localities. By Dr. Hucu Ha Cr CreGHOR Ns ELON: Blu Ore lsecceccascesseasecs ce ceeess'sescscecdsanceddels 233

XXII. Characters of new species of Helix from India, Mauritius and the Cape of Good Hope; also of a new Mauritian Tornatellina, with remarks on the habits of a Cape Succinea. By W.H. Benson, Esq. . 251

XXIII. Sketch of the Geology of the neighbourhood of Grantham, Lincolnshire ; and a comparison of the Stonesfield Slate at Collyweston in Northamptonshire with that in the Cotswold Hills. By the Rev. P. SPS HONTE Mls Nesp his GraSa, asesutindstesietcecsetaceseesinecaeteteseetes Sepa 256°

XXIV. Description of a new British Alga belonging to the genus Schizxosiphon, Kiitz. By Rozert Casrary, Ph.D. &c. (With a Plate.) 266 XXV. On the Animal of Nautilus. By J. E. Gray, F.R.S. ...... 268

XXVI. On some new genera and species of Silurian Radiata in the Collection of the University of Cambridge. By Freprericxk M‘Coy, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen’s College, Belfast ...... 270


Page XXVII. Supplementary Notices regarding the Dodo and its Kin- dred. No.9. By H. E. Srricxtanp, M.A., IRE Crisis Baperemaqasoase Soacad. el Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Botanical Society of Edin- 291—303

burgh ...cscscssesesereseeeees cceccsceeeces dosecoeccccsecascuconcsaeass

Capture of Centrolophus Pompilus, by W. P. Cock; Notices of Aca- lephe found at Lowestoft, by T. Brightwell, F.L.S. ; On the genus Hyalonema, by J. E. Gray, Esq.; Notice of a Hybrid-Crowned Pigeon, by D. W. Mitchell, Sec. Z.5. ; Spheronema deformans ;

On the Names of the Victoria Water Lily, by J. De C. Sowerby, F.L.S. ; Capture of Zetrodon Pennantii; Meteorological Observa- tions and Table .........scseeeeeeeeeerereeeeeens eoseenaweeen Saabesoes 304—3812


XXVIII. On the Pholadide. By Witutam Crark, Esq. oes. 313

XXIX. Descriptions of some newly discovered species and Charac- ters of a new genus of Araneidea. By Joun Buacxwatt, F.L.S. ... 336 XXX. Descriptions of a new genus and six new species of Saurian Reptiles. By P. H. Gosse, A.L.S. ...cscsccsccessecceessctscscescscenceeeoes 344

XXXI. Chronological Exposition of the Periods of Vegetation and the different Floras which have successively occupied the surface of the

Earth. By M. ADOLPHE BRONGNIART .....,..seccsccesescescrsccesocasecess 348 XXXII. On the Reciprocal Relation of the Vital and Physical Forces. By Georce Newport, F.R.S., F.L.S. .....0...cccscsecssveceraes 370

XXXIII. Descriptions of three new Devonian Zoophytes. By Fre- perick M‘Coy, Professor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen’s Col- REGO, SSCUUAU ME ccs ccnttacaaesandesenesssedcasteen cceeseheaasalcceen: feet ese taeeeEe 377

New Books:—The British Flora, comprising the Phzenogamous or Flowering Plants and the Ferns. The 6th edition, with additions and corrections, &c., by Sir William Jackson Hooker, K.H., LL.D. &c. &c., and George A. Walker-Arnott, LL.D. &c. &c.—Dr. Jacob Sturm’s Deutschlands Flora; fortgesetzt von Johann Wil- helm Sturm, M.A.—Icones Florze Germanicz et Helveticz, auc- tore Ludovico Reichenbach.—Bryologia Europza, auctoribus Buch, Schimper et Giimbel.— Genera Plantarum Florz Germa- nicz iconibus et descriptionibus illustrata; opus a beato Nees ab Esenbeck incoatum, continuatum nunc conjunctis studiis plurium auctorum persecutum; Fasc. 25, auctore Schnizlein; Fasc. 26, auctore Bischoff.— Thesaurus Literaturze Botanic; curavit G. A. Deitel? 30.3 dist tus edb deed deo deas See ee eee 379— 385


Proceedings of the Zoological Society ; Linnean Society ......... 386—396

Notes on the Syngnathi, by M. Moggridge, Esq. ; On the Resuscitation of Frozen Fish, by Prof. O. P. Hubbard; New Bird from New Zealand; On the Animal of Geomelania, by A. Adams, F.L.S. ; Meteorological Observations and Table ............eeceeeeeeeee 396—400


XXXIV. Tabular view of Fossil Shells from the middle division of the Inferior Oolite in Gloucestershire. By Joun Lycett, Esq. (With @& Plates) eceec.s mance scteomaddemaseconacscansanseccacieescensceecincaane side ssvecieins 401

XXXV. Observations on the Luminosity of the Sea, with descrip- tions of several of the objects which cause it, some new to the British Coast. By Cuartes Witxiam Peacu, Associate of the Royal Institu-

tion ot Comwall, (With three Plates.) zvccdsccadec.sccccsucecceocoterssce 425 XXXVI. Descriptions of some new species of Butterflies. By Wi1- L1aM C, Hewitson, Esq. (With two Plates.).............ssscccssecccesees 434 XXXVII. Notice of a Tridactylous Footmark from the Bunter Sandstone of Weston Point, Cheshire. By R. Harkness, Esq. ...... 440 XXXVIII. On Cardiaster, a new genus of Cretaceous Echinide, allied to Holaster. By Professor Epwarp Forsss, F.R.S. ............ 442 XXXIX. On the Conovulide, Tornatellide, and Pyramidellide. PINE AMC IAN R WAU. sccc ss cacecqesacecdcen susp euscsneauncscauaaree sau ate 444 XL. On the Hairs of marine Algz and their development, By Dr. Rozert Caspary. (With three Plates.) ....0....sccececocceecnccecens 465 XLI. Observations on some British Plants. By G. A. Waker- AmNO MULAN D)E ecence coanaecenssscdesasteotdcosecscanagderwecnsate sbaues cetecste doe 472 XLII. On some new Silurian Radiata. By Frepericx M‘Coy, Pro- fessor of Geology and Mineralogy in Queen’s College, Belfast ......... 474 Proceedings of the Zoological Society ...........sesscscscsescesencscscsesers Gif

On the Tenacity of Life in Snails; Characters of new British Rubi; On Victoria regia; Journey to Explore the Natural History of the Amazon River; On the Occurrence of Regalecus glesne at Redcar, Yorkshire, in 1850, by J. E. Gray, Esq, F.R.S.; Mete- orological Observations and Table ...........seeeceeseeneceeeees 489—498

LIGIGS <CACosRRSNRis CEB cee Ee Cee ca MIREEE eae eh al ie Oe 499


ae } Asplanchna priodonta, Gosse.

IIL. Fossil Entomostraca.

LY. Mv: ; Anatomy of Furcellaria fastigiata and Polyides rotundus. Wis.

VII. Male Organs of the Brachyura.—Lerneonema Bairdii.

VIII. Schizosiphon Warreniz, Casp. IX. Lae me } New Butterflies.

XI. Fossils from the Inferior Oolite. XII. XIII. } Animals causing the Luminosity of the Sea. XIV. ba XVI. i Hairs of Algz. XVII.





£6 . sesssesseeeenees PY litora spargite muscum, Naiades, et circim vitreos considite fontes : Pollice virgineo teneros hic carpite flores : Floribus et pictum, dive, replete canistrum. At vos, o Nymphz Craterides, ite sub undas ; Ite, recurvato variata corallia trunco Vellite muscosis e rupibus, et mihi conchas Ferte, Dez pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo.” N. Parthenii Giannettasii Eci, 1.

No, 31.. PULY 850,

I.— Outlines of a Monograph of the genus Leontodon. By Joun Bart, M.R.LA.

AN examination of the species of the genus Leontodon, L., con- tained in my herbarium, and a comparison of the specimens with the descriptions of authors, has led me to perceive that, with the single exception of Koch, the most esteemed authors have but very imperfectly distinguished the species of this genus, or deter- mined the natural groups into which they are distributed. Koch’s Synopsis*, however, gives so complete and satisfactory an ac- count of the forms belonging to the German and Swiss floras, that it might appear superfluous to attempt to add anything to his descriptions if they included a larger number of species, but in consequence of the region of his flora being so far limited, and of having myself observed and collected several species not included in his work, I am induced to propose the following ar- rangement of the forms known to me as the result of independent observation, in the hope that it may assist those botanists who, like myself, may have found the descriptions contained in other works incomplete and unsatisfactory.

I shall premise a few remarks upon the several organs from

* I should observe that reference is made herein exclusively to the first edition of Koch’s ‘Synopsis Flore Germanic et Helvetice.’

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 2. Vol. vi. 1

2 Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon.

the variations in whose form and structure the characters of the species have been derived.

The structure of the root has been, as far as I am aware, neg- lected by all authors before Koch, and by many who have written since the publication of his work; it offers nevertheless a very valuable character by which plants, which in certain states nearly resemble each other, may with certainty be distinguished, and I altogether concur in the separation of the group of species which possess a fusiform vertical root, as a distinct section of the genus from those having a horizontal abruptly termimated rhizoma, though it is proper to remark that L. Villarsi, Lois., and L. Rosani, Ten., present a nearly intermediate structure, in conformity with the general law by which the neaus im a series of forms so complete as that of the Cichoracee is continually maintained.

The length of the scape or flowering stem, as compared with that of the leaves, can scarcely be deemed a trustworthy cha- racter; in L. Taraxact, Lois., and perhaps also in L. croceum, Hke., the comparative shortness of the scape appears to be constant under all circumstances. That condition of the scape which is indicated by the drooping of the capitulum before flowering, as also the thickening of the upper portion of the scape, and the presence of leafy scales, are characters, which, though properly applicable to the description of certain species, are yet so variable in degree, that individual specimens may often be found to which specific characters drawn from these points scarcely if at all apply.

The variations in the form of the leaves in the several species furnish characters, which it is impossible to neglect, and yet, owing to the great diversity seen amongst individuals of the same species, which it is extremely difficult to define with accuracy. I may here express an opinion which has often been suggested to me in the course of attempts to unravel difficult groups of species, that the chief advance to be made in descriptive botany depends upon such accurate observation and designation of | the forms of the leaf, as will enable us to comprehend in specific characters the phases of variation which the leaves of the same species undergo. Careful observation shows, as theory would have already suggested, that, amidst their endless variations, the leaves of plants belonging to distinct species are seldom if ever precisely similar, but the ‘descriptive botanist frequently fails in assigning distinctive characters which really exist in nature. In Leontodon the depth of the incisions or indentations of the leaves is a point of little or no importance, but perhaps their direction has not been sufficiently attended to. I venture to think that in this respect Koch’s appreciation of the importance of the cha- racters drawn from the leaves is erroneous. I am also disposed

Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon. 3

to believe that the general form of the outline of the leaf is in a great degree constant.

The involucre furnishes characters which are nearly as difficult of definition as those derived from the leaves. The scales or phyllaries vary much in their number and breadth, and in the regularity of the order in which they are superimposed. In some of the species of the section Asterothriz the imvolucre is regularly imbricated with four or five rows of equidistant scales, while in the section Apargia we have two rows of scales of nearly equal length with a comparatively small number of short ac- cessory scales at the base, and yet the series of intermediate forms is so complete that it appears impossible to assign definite cha- racters which shall apply exclusively to each species.

The nature and amount of pubescence upon the leaves, stem and involucre are next to be considered. In some species the presence or absence of hairs seems to be determined by accidental conditions, but in the section Asterothria the presence of a rigid stellate pubescence appears to be constant. This latter however varies much in its structure; in some species the hairs are truly stellate, consisting of a short stem crowned with a star, while in others the hairs (which may be termed furcate) are divided at the summit into two or three short branches not lying in the same plane. These branches or spines are usually straight, but sometimes recurved, forming minute hooks at the summit of the hair. In a few instances short irregularly branched hairs are seen to accompany the stellate pubescence.

As a general rule, stellate, furcate, and simple hairs do not occur together upon individuals of the same species, but I have observed simple furcate hairs upon the same specimens of L. has- tilis, L., and L. Rosani, Ten., and I therefore doubt the propriety of relying implicitly on the character of the pubescence for permanent specific characters. In a few species the involucre is occasionally covered with long silky fuscous hairs of a much softer texture than those which are found on the leaves or stem ; it may be doubted however whether these are constantly present in any species of the genus.

There are few genera of Cichoracee in which the fruit varies more in its form amongst the different species than in Leontodon. In some species the acheniuin possesses a beak more than equaling its own length, while in others the fruit is truly beak- less. Owing to the difficulty of comparing dried specimens, from the uncertainty which must exist as to the complete maturity of the fruit, I have some hesitation in asserting my belief that the relative length of the achenium and beak is not always con- stant in the same species. The same observation may perhaps be applied to the degree of roughness of the ribs of the fruit.


4, Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon.

The structure of the pappus has’ hitherto been considered to afford the surest and most constant characters throughout the entire of the Cichoracee. I am led to doubt the value of the characters by which Koch has divided his sections Apargia and Asterothriz, as 1 do not think that the differences pomted out by him in the structure of the pappus correspond to natural affinities or diversities in the general characteristics of those groups, or that the natural groups which he has proposed con- stantly exhibit the characters assigned by him.

T shall have to describe a remarkable form of this genus, very nearly allied to L. hastilis, in which all the rays of the pappus are either nearly devoid of their usual feathery plumes, or else lose that appendage at a very early period ;—thus requiring a modification of Koch’s character of the genus, where he says, « Plumulz radiorum non decidue.”

In distinguishing the sections of the genus, I have not followed Koch in giving the name Apargia to the small group of which L. incanus is the type; it seems to me more proper to retain that name for the larger group which he has named Dens Leonis, while his section Apargia should in my opinion be united te Asterothrix. If it be determined that the sections of the genus should be founded exclusively upon characters taken from the pappus, it will be necessary to subdivide Koch’s section Astero- thriz into two. I have thought it better merely to indicate the three groups which would thus be formed from the section to which I have given that name.

In accordance with views which I have at various times attempted to circulate amongst botanists, I shall in the following essay distinguish the subspecies, varieties, and less permanent forms of the species here described by fixed symbols, instead of adhering to the ordinary plan of affixing to such forms a Greek or Roman letter whose meaning is not established by any pre- vious convention.

I have elsewhere* endeavoured to show that the introduction © of a systematic notation for this purpose may conduce to objects much more important than the convenience and clearness which it would tend to impart to the details of descriptive botany. The naturalist is, as I believe, greatly dependent for those conceptions which are to enlarge and elevate the scientific character of his pursuit, upon such improvements in technical arrangement and notation as may assist in compelling order amongst the multi- tudinous forms of life which are exhibited to his observation.

Only by slow degrees, and by minute and comprehensive study

* Atti della sesta Riunione degli Scienzati Italiani, p. 505.—Report of he British Association for 1845: Proeeedings of the Sections.

Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon. 5

of the relations of closely allied forms, can we hope to arrive at distinct conceptions of the true nature of those fundamental groups whose existence under the name of species and genus we confidently affirm, but whose essential attributes we find our- selves unable to define @ priori, and, still less, to recognize with certainty when presented to us in nature.

Adopting the definitions which appear to me best suited to the present imperfect state of our knowledge, I distinguish as a species, that group of vegetable forms, of which we are led by observation and analogy to believe, that the differences between the individuals composing it may be made to disappear by the continued agency of external circumstances either upon the in- dividuals themselves or on their descendants. I denominate sub- species a group of similar forms capable of propagation over a definite area, not immediately altered in form by a change in external conditions, but not distinguished by characters usually found to be constant in the same group. In common with most other botanists, I style varieties those diversities of form which are not continued in the descendants of the individual, or which disappear speedily under the influence of new external agencies. As a provision for our ignorance, I distinguish as lusus those unusual conditions in which a marked difference from the ordi- nary form is exhibited by a small number of individuals, respecting which we are unable to assert whether it be the result of unusual external agency or of some specific or subspecific difference of organization.

Denoting that which appears to be the typical form of each species by the Roman capital A, and premising that in all cases I distmguish the subspecies by a Roman capital, and the corre- sponding variety by the small Roman letter, I propose the fol- lowing symbols, which appear to be appropriate not only for the genus Leontodon, but for the entire natural order of Cichoracee.

+D; stem or scape more divided, capitula more numerous.

—D; stem or scape less divided or simple.

+; plant more slender, leaves and divisions more acute, phylla- ries narrower, florets less numerous.

—E;; scape thicker, leaves broader, more blunt, phyllaries broader, florets more numerous.

+F'; involucre clothed with long hairs, usually of dark fuscous colour.

4-G; whole plant more glabrous, or entirely devoid of pubescence.

—G, pubescence more abundant.

+1; leaves more deeply cut.

—I; leaves less deeply cut or quite entire.

Where a subspecies or variety appears to differ from the typical

6 Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon.

form in more than one of the characters above denoted, two or more letters with the appropriate symbol are affixed. The use of Greek letters is reserved for those forms which I would denomi- nate dusus.

I proceed to give diagnostic characters for the species and the more remarkable subspecies and varieties with which I am acquainted, subjoining occasionally critical observations derived from notes made in the course of an examination of the speci- mens contained in my herbarium. Such further mformation is added with respect to the distribution and synonymy of each species as appeared to rest on trustworthy authority.

Lreontopon, L. Involucrum imbricatum. Achenium columnare, seepius in rostrum sensim attenuatum. Pappus conformis, per- sistens, plumosus, radiis exterioribus interdum brevioribus eplu- mosis. Plumulee radiorum fere semper persistentes. Receptaculum subnudum.

Sect. I. Oportna. Radix premorsa. Pappi radii subzequales, omnes plumosi, ad basin dilatati serrulati. Capitula virginea erecta. Pili simplices.

1. L. autumnalis, L. Radice undique fibrosa ; scapo diviso ; foliis lineari-lanceolatis, vix acutis ; pedunculis superne incrassatis, squa- mosis ; acheniorum suberostrium costz ruguloseze.

A. foliis pinnatifido-dentatis, lobis integris, subobtusis, linearibus ; herba tota pilis simplicibus adspersa.

Hab. in graminosis Europe presertim septentrionalis frequens. Nascitur etiam in America boreali, dubitant tamen cll. Torrey et Gray an vere indigenus.

A+, var. pratensis, foliis pinnatifido-dentatis ; involucro fusco- villoso ; scapo foliisque pilosis.

Hab. sparsim in pratis humidis. (Habui a Scavaig, Isle of Skye, Prof. Balfour ; legi prope Cracoviam, et in montibus prope dm- bleside, in Anglize Comitatu Westmoreland.)

Syn. Apargia pratensis, Link.

—I,—d,+¢g. subsp. palustris, scapo subsimplici; foliis subinte- gerrimis, obsolete dentatis, glabris ; capitulis parvis, in pedun- culum attenuatis ; involucri squamis glabris, atrovirentibus.

Hab. in paludosis, tam montanis quam maritimis. (Legi in Anglia, Westmoreland Mountains ; Black Mountains, Breconshire ; et in Hibernia, Salt marsh by the Boyne near Drogheda.)

+F,—D,—TI. subsp. borealis, scapo simplici, foliis subinteger- rimis, obsolete dentatis ; involucro fusco-villoso.

fab. in torfosis subalpinis Europe septentrionalis. (Clova Moun- tains, Prof. Graham et Prof. Balfour; Sutherland, Prof. Bal- four ; legi in Hibernise monte Lugnaquilla et in Seotize montibus Grampians.)

Syn, Mieracium Taravaci, L. Apargia Taraxaci, Sm.

Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon. 7

I possess specimens gathered by myself in the Eastern Pyre- nees (Val de Carol), and on Brandon Mountain in Kerry, which, from the peculiarity of their habit rather than from positive cha- racters, I was disposed to consider distinct ; neither of the speci- mens were in fruit, and for the present I am inclined to refer them to a form of LZ. autumnalis, which I would distinguish as a variety of the subspecies palustris —e.

Sect. II. Aparera. Radix preemorsa. Foliola involucri interiora biseriata subzequalia ; exteriora brevia. Pappi radii ineequales, inte- riores plumosi, ad basin dilatati, serrulati ; exteriores breves, scabri. Pili simplices, seu fureati. Achenia suberostria.

2. L. Taraxaci, Lois. Radice preemorsa, fibris validis preedita ; scapo simplici, superne sensim incrassato, subsquamoso ; foliis lanceolatis, in petiolum attenuatis, subintegerrimis, vel lobato-dentatis, vel in- terdum inzequaliter pinnatifidis, lobis latis triangularibus ; involucro laxo, fusco-villoso, pappo niveo.

Had. in pascuis alpinis Gallize, Helvetiaze, Germanize, et Italize supe- rioris.

Syn. Apargia Taraxaci, W. Hedypnois Tarazxaci, Vill.

This very distinct species appears to be confined to the Alps of Central Europe; I suspect that the Carpathian habitat re- corded by Reichenbach should be referred to the following spe- cies. In both the flowering stem is shorter than in the allied species.

3. L. croceus, Rebh. (an Hke.). Scapo simplici, superne aliquantum incrassato, subsquamoso ; foliis lanceolatis, grosse et imeequaliter pinnatifido-dentatis, lobis triangularibus, integris ; involucro piloso ; pappo sordide albo. Herba tota subglaberrima.

Hab. in alpibus Austriacis et in Carpathis septentrionalibus. (Legi prope Zakopana, et in jugo alpino supra Biala Thal in Carpatho- rum montibus Tatra. Habui ex iisdem montibus sub nomine L. Taraxaci comm. Dr. Gerenday.)

Syn. Apargia crocea, Willd. ?

I do not feel quite certain as to the synonymy of this species, the descriptions of the authors cited being incomplete. The Carpathian plant is intermediate between L. Taraxaci and L. py- renaicus, but it is nearer to the former ; the colour of the pappus affords a satisfactory character by which it may be distinguished.

4. L. pyrenaicus, Gouan. Radice preemorsa, undique fibrosa ; scapo monocephalo, squamoso, superne sensim incrassato, ante anthesin nutante ; foliis spathulato-lanceolatis, obtusis, versus basin repando- denticulatis, glabris vel pilis simplicibus adspersis ; acheniis utrin- que attenuatis vix rostratis, costis vix rugulosis.

A. alpinus, involucro fere glabro, scapo superne incrassato, Hab. in pascuis alpinis Europe medize, frequens.

8 Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon.

Syn. L. squamosum, Lam. Apargia alpina, Willd. (L. alpinum, Jeq. sequenti referendum monente cel. Koch.)

+E,—g. subsp. awrantiacus, involucro pube brevi farinoso ad- sperso ; seapo minus incrassato ; ligulis aurantiacis. ;

Hab. in alpibus Carinthie et in Apenninorum jugo. (Legi prope Heiligenblut, Carinthize, et supra montem Corno alla Scala in Apennino Bononiensi.)

Syn. L. aurantiaeus, Ten. (an Rebh.). Apargia aurantiaca, Kit. ?

This species and the glabrous forms of the succeeding one sometimes much resemble each other, especially before the for- mation of ripe fruit, but the characters assigned, especially the form of the leaf and the disposition of the denticulations towards the base of the leaf, will generally suffice to distinguish the pre- sent species.

I have not verified the character pointed out by Koch, in the narrow base of the rays of the pappus.

5. L. hastilis, L. Radice preemorsa, undique fibrosa ; scapo mono- cephalo, sub-esquamoso, apice parum incrassato; foliis oblongo- lanceolatis, plus minusve inzequaliter dentatis, dentibus versus basin retrorsis ; pilis bi-trifurcatis ; involucri foliolis oblongo-linearibus ; achenii erostris, costis parum rugulosis.

A. foliis, scapis, involucrisque hirtis ; foliis profunde dentatis, lobis triangularibus angulatis.

Hab. in Europa et Asia temperata vulgaris, valde ludibundus ; variat.

+d. scapo inferne bifurcato (legi in Monte Righi Helvetiz).

—g. pilis frequentioribus brevioribus incanus, frequens in apricis Europe, presertim australioris.

+i, foliis acute runcinato-pinnatifidis, lobis dentatis.

Syn. L. crispus, Reich. et Thomas, non Vill.

Habui ab ipso cl. Reichenbach, atque iterum ab E. Thomas ad Zermatt in Valesia lectum. Ipse legi, in Gallize montibus Ar- vernize et Delphinatus, et in Italia superiori juxta Lacum La- rium, necnon in convalle Leventina.

Adsunt etiam varietates plurimee quee subspecies sequentes appro- pinquant.

Syn. L. hispidum, L. Hedypnois hispida, Sm. Apargia hispida,

Hort. Hieracium ineanum, Poll.

+G. subsp. danubialis, foliis, scapis, involucrisque glabris, seu pilis raris furcatis nonnunquam etiam simplicibus adspersum. Frequens in montanis et umbrosis Europe fere totius, sed om- nino desideratur in Anglia et Hibernia ubi species frequentissime occurrit. (Habui etiam ex Persize Monte Eléruz a cel. Kotschy.)

Syn. L. hastilis B. glabratus, Koch. L. hastile, L. L. danubiale, Jacq. Apargia hastilis, Willd. variat. +e —e, +41 &—i.

Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon. 9

+1,+g. subsp. hyoseroides, foliis fere ad costam usque pinnati- fidis, pinnis angustis, smuato-dentatis ; herba viridi, glaberrima, seu pilis nonnullis longiusculis adspersa. Legi in sinu alpino Trift dicto, prope Zermatt in Valesia.

Syn. L. hyoseroides, Welw. (?)

—E. subsp. montanus, scapo crassiore, superne magis squamoso ; foliis latioribus, minus divisis, viridibus ; involucri foliolis latio- ribus. Achenia videntur paululum longiora et magis muricata.

Habui a monte Fouly in Valesia ab E. Thomas, formam vix diver- sam legi in alpibus Sti Gothardi, et in Pyrenzeis orientalibus.

Syn. L. dubius, Reich. Apargia dubia, Hppe.

The ordinary forms of the typical species and of the subspe- cies danubialis and hyoseroides are easily distinguished from the allied species by the irregular and unsymmetrical manner in which the leaves are cut and divided; the nearly entire-leaved varieties however, especially those of the subspecies montanus, approach very near to L. pyrendicus, as has already been re- marked, but I believe that the characters given in the leaves and the fruit will always suffice to distinguish the two species. The entire absence of a subspecies so widely spread as L. danubialis from the region of the British flora, is worthy of particular re- mark as bearing upon some of the arguments upon the question of the origin of species derived from their distribution through definite areas of space.

6. L. caucasicus, Fisch.? Radice preemorsa(?); scapo tenui glabro ; foliis runcinato-pinnatifidis, lobis conformibus angulatis retrorsis, cum involucro pilis raris simplicibus, vel nonnunquam furcatis, adsperso ; involucri foliolis lineari-lanceolatis, acuminatis, achenio erostri, vix (aut ne vix ?) muricato.

Hab. in subalpinis Caucasi (D.C. Prod.). Habeo specimen unicum incompletum acl. R. F. Hohenacker.

Syn. Apargia caucasica, M. Bieb. (?) ; Reich. Fl. Exe. 853 (?).

The single imperfect specimen in my herbarium appears to me to be in all probability the plant of Bieberstein, but there are some slight differences between the description above given and that of the author. My plant approaches very nearly in appear- ance to some forms of L. hastilis + G, but I distinguish it by the generally simple hairs, and still more certainly by the regular and symmetrical divisions of the leaf, which resembles that of Aposeris fotida, Less., but the lobes are more decidedly deflexed. The character here noted in the divisions of the leaf is of much importance in the Cichoracee.

7. L. anomalus, nobis. Radice brevi, obliqua, parce fibrosa ; scapo monocephalo, supra medium hine inde squamis linearibus instructo, cum foliis et involucro pilis rigidis bi-tri-uncinato-furcatis obtecto ;

10 Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon.

foliis incano-virentibus, exterioribus spathulatis, sequentibus ob- longo-lanceolatis, antrorsum dentatis ; involucri foliolis lineari-acu- minatis ; achenii suberostris costis muricatis, radiorum pappi plu- mulis deciduis.

Hab. in Apennino Apuano. In verticibus Pagna della Croce* et Tambura, mense Julio, 1844, florentem, hance stirpem detexi, ite- rum legi, mense Maio, 1848, juxta scaturigines Frigide in usdem montibus, specimina nova prioribus omnino conformia.

Although this species much resembles L. hastilis A, 1 cannot doubt of the necessity for distinguishing it from all the forms of that specics. Independently of the remarkable and anomalous character of the pappus, common tv all the specimens from the different localities above mentioned, the hooked branches of the forked hairs, the narrower and more pointed phyllaries, and the rougher ribs of the fruit, furnish points of distinction amply suf- ficient to justify its introduction as a new species. The root also appears to resemble those of the two following species, and to indicate a transition from the horizontal abrupt rhizoma of the species hitherto described to the fusiform root which charac- terizes the following section.

8. L. Villarsii, Lois. Radice subfusiformi, obliqua, parce fibrosa ; foliis invequaliter pinnatifidis, lobis oblongis angulatis, utrinque pilis longis, albis, simplicibus, interdum apice brevissime fureatis, copiose vestitis ; scapo tenui subglabro, superne, cum involueri foli- olis exterioribus lineari-acuminatis, demum recurvis, pube brevis- sima stellata, pilis raris intermixta, parcius adsperso ; achenii sub- erostris costis vix rugulosis.

Hab. in saxosis Galliz australis, Pedemontii et (?) agri Forojuliensis, infrequens. Habeo e Gallia prope Gap, comm. cl. Jordan ; atque ex Pedemontio juxta Col di Tenda, ubi detexit cl. Reuter.

Syn. L. hirtum, Vill., et forsan Linn. sp.1123. Apargia Villarsii, W. Picris hirta, All.

This species, very distinct in appearance from the preceding members of this section of the genus, is closely allied to the fol- lowing species, of which it might be considered a subspecies + B but for the differences found in the hairs and fruit of L. Rosani.

9. L. Rosani, D.C. Prod. Radice subfusiformi, obliqua, parce fibrosa ; foliis oblongis, profunde pinnatifidis, segmentis spathulatis oblon- gisve, angulatis, e pilis longis albis, sub lente asperis, interdum sim- plicibus, seepius apice bifurcatis, utrinque hirtis; scapo tenui sub- glabro, superne, cum involucri foliolis lineari-oblongis adpressis, pube brevissima stellata, pilis raris intermixta, adsperso ; achenii vix rostrati, costis eminentibus muricatis.

Hab. in apricis Italie medize et inferioris haud infrequens. Legi in

* I possess a specimen of the common J. hastilis A, gathered at the same time on this mountain.

Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon. 11

Hetruria (Val di Chiana, La Verna, Fiesole, Apennino Pistojese), semper tamen in montosis soli expositis.

Syn. dpargia Rosani, Ten. Stirpem Tenoreanam in regno Neapo- litano nascentem nunquam vidi, hane tamen ex diagnosi Candol- leano, ipsissimam fore speciem quam ego jam plurimis annis in Hetruria observavi, nullum dubito.

This species is considerably larger in all its parts than L. Vil- larsti, nevertheless it is doubtful whether the adpressed outer scales of the involucre would afford a sufficient mark of specific distinction, but, in the present state of our knowledge of this group, we may assume that the roughness of the hairs with which the leaves are abundantly clothed, together with the muricated achenia, furnish characters which do not allow us to unite this with the last-mentioned species.

Sect. III. Asrrrorurix. Radix fusiformis, verticaliter descen- dens. Capitula virginea nutantia. Foliola involucri 3—5-seriata, im- bricata. Pili stellati. Achenia muricata plus minus rostrata.

* Pappus ut in § II.

10. L. incanus, Scop. Radice simplici subramosa; foliis oblongis integerrimis, seu leviter denticulatis, e pilis subeequalibus brevibus stellatis utrinque incanis; involucri foliolis lanceolatis, atroviren- tibus, cum scapo apice parce squamoso, pube brevissima stellata, pilis nonnullis furcatis intermixta, obtectis; achenio superne at- tenuato, ruguloso.

Hab. in montosis, preecipue calcareis Europe mediz. Habui ex alpibus Rheeticis (dldula, K. Thomas, Tyrol, Bartling), ex Carpa- thorum monte Chocs, comm. Dr. Flittner, atque ex collibus prope Vindobonam, a Kovats.

Syn. Hieracium incanum, L. Apargia incana, Scop. Leontodon alpinum, Vill. (see D.C. Prod. vii. p. 103).

+D-+E. subsp. arenarius, scapo bi-trifido ; foliorum indumento aliquantum breviori, inyolucri foliolis exterioribus recurvis.

Hab. in arenosis ad ripas fl. Isonzo prope Goritz unde possideo spe- cimen unicum immaturum; prope Togliano et Monfalcone, Reich.

Syn. Apargia Berini, Bartl. A. arenaria, Moretti. A. canescens, Sieb.

There are no characters assigned to L. Berini in the descrip- tions of authors which justify its being retained as a distinct spe- cies, and it is doubtful even whether it should rank as more than a variety produced by the peculiar position in which it is found in the sandy detritus of the rivers in Friuli.

The character of the pubescence is identical in both forms, but it appears to be slightly shorter in the subspecies arenarius. In the ordinary form the stellate hairs of the scape become gradually

12 Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon.

shorter from the base upwards, and ultimately the radiated star with which each is crowned becomes nearly sessile.

11. L. tenuiflorus, D.C. Prod. Radice simplici, interdum 2—3-fur- cato; foliis oblongo-linearibus, integerrimis, obscure virentibus ; pilis rigidis stellula brevi coronatis, obtectis, scapo sparsim squa- moso, versus basin folio unico lineari seu oblongo-lineari instructo, glabro, vel pilis stellulatis paucis adsperso, superne, cum involucri squamis lineari-lanceolatis, pube rara brevissima subincano ; ache- nio breviter rostrato, preesertim superne muricato. :

Hab. in calcareis subalpinis Insubrie. Legi juxta Lacum Larium copiose plerisque locis. (Monte Crocione, prope Tremezzo, Villa Arcolani.)

+i. foliis versus medium sinuato-dentatis.

Habui ex Monte Salvatore prope Lugano comm. K. Thomas.

Syn. Apargia tenuiflora, Gaud., descr. ex spec. a Monte Salvatore

quee nobis ad varietatem spectare videntur, cum forma Alprum Insubriz soleunis gaudet foliis integerrimis, caeterum descr. Gau- diniano omnino conformis.

The less numerous hairs crowned with a shorter star might not suffice to distinguish this species, but the presence of scales and a cauline leaf on the stem, the narrower and longer invo- lucral leaflets, and the more beaked and rougher fruit, furnish abundant points of specific distinction which have not been suffi- ciently pointed out.

This and the preceding species fall into the section Apargia of Koch; but that group, which is founded on a difference in the structure of the mner rays of the pappus, which in these are flat- tened and serrulate at the base, while in the succeeding species they are feathered throughout, appears to me quite artificial, as in all other important respects it is closely allied with the true Asterothrices ; but I find that if the pappus alone be considered, it is scarcely correct to separate these from the preceding group which Koch has termed Dens leonis. All the rays of the pappus are not feathered in L. incanus and L. tenuiflorus, for I have always found a few short scabrous hairs ; so that in the structure of the pappus these species exhibit a nexus between the two groups, which it might otherwise be desirable to distinguish as separate genera.

** Pappi radii e basi plumosi, exteriores breviores interdum scabri.

12. L. sawatilis, Reich. (?). Radice crasso, fusiformi ; foliis antror- sum sinuato-dentatis pilis stellatis vestitis; scapo pilis raris ad- sperso ; involucri laxiusculi foliolis lmeari-lanceolatis, acutiusculis, glabris aut margine et dorso pilis brevibus rigidis ciliatis, in series 4—5 haud eequidistantibus instructis ; achenio longe rostrata, pre- sertim in rostro muricato.

Mr. J. Ball on the genus Leontodon. 13

Hab. in regno. Neapolitano et verosimiliter in tota regione mediter-