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China in Convulsion

Volume Two

" Not only two of the v/ry best books on China, but two of the very best books which have ever been published by any author on any country at any tin'?" Dr. Talcott Williams.

Tenth Thousand

"V'illage Life in China

A Study ill Sociology, 8vo, fully illus- trated, $2.00. "Arthur H. Smith has added a second to those extra- ordinary studies of China life, of which he is so easily mas- ter. No book like this has been written on China except one, and that is Dr. Smith's ' Chinese Characteristics.' The two books together may fairly be said to give a clearer idea of China as it is than any or all of the 5,000 or 6,000 works published on the Empire during the last century." Phila- delphia Press.

A MAGAZINE OF INFORMATION

" He is an acute observer, a discriminating judge of both people and facts, and an entertaining narrator. No one can begin to understand the Chinese until he has read such a work as this." New York Observer.

Fifteenth Thousand

^hinese Characteristics

New Edition. With 20 full-page illustra- tions and index, and characteristic decoration for each chapter. 8vo, cloth, $2 00.

"Those best informed call it without exception the best book on the Chinese that is before the public, and a pretty careful survey of it confirms that opinion." The Independent.

"There is all the difference between an intaglio in onyx and a pencil scrawl on paper to be discovered between Mr. Smith s book and the printed prattle of the average globe- trotter. Our author's work has been done, as it were, with a chisel and an emery wheel. He goes deeply beneath the surface." The Critic.

A KEEN ANALYSIS OF CHARACTER '• The book is generally accepted by students in the Far East as not only one of the ablest analyses and portrayals of the Chinese character, but, on the whole, one of the most truthful and judicial." The Nation.

J

FIKST TRAIN PASSING TllKOLGil IIIK WALL OF PKKl.NG

China in Convulsio

BY

ARTHUR H. SMITH

Twenty-nine years a Missionary

of the American Board in China

Author of

*' Chinese Characteristics " and " Village Life in China "

With Numerous Illustrations and Maps

IN TWO VOLUMES Volume Two

NEW YORK CHICAGO TORONTO

FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY

1901

Copyright 1901

by

FLEMING H. REVELL COMPANY

(November)

Press of

Riggs Printins^ df Publishing Co.

Albany, N. Y.

CONTENTS

Volume II

CHAPTER PAGB

XX. Siege Life 365

XXI. Days of Waiting 383

XXII. Renewal of the Attack 402

XXIII. The Relief 419

XXIV. From Taku to Peking 435

XXV. The Fortifications 462

XXVI. After the Siege 485

XXVII. Hand of God in the Siege 508

XXVIII. Punishment of Peking 517

XXIX. The Capital in Transformation 535

XXX. Ruin of T'ung Chou 555

XXXI. Tientsin after the Siege 571

XXXII. Foreigners in the Interior 594

XXXIII. Notable Experiences 621

XXXIV. The Catastrophe to the Native Church 650

XXXV. Personal Narratives 665

XXXVI. Fire and Sword in Shansi 207

XXXVII. A Twelve-month of Foreign Occupation 713

XXXVIII. The Outlook 733

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS VOLUME II

FACING PAGE

First Train Passing Through the Wall of Peking Title

The " International " Gun, " Our Betsey " . . . 373

Fortified Bridge across the Moat near Legation Street 383

British Legation Gate^ Fuel Supply Committee . . 40.2

Buddhist Temple and Modern Tram Car .... 416

Water Gate, Peking, through which Allies Entered . 416

" Here They Come." General Gaselee on the Right . 432

Fraternizing on the Tennis Court 432

Black Fort at Tientsin, Outside View .... 446

Black Fort at Tientsin. Inside View 44j6

Wall of Tientsin After Bombardment .... 452

Gate Through which Allies entered Tientsin . . 452

Temple of Heaven, British Headquarters .... 460

Court, Temple of Heaven, British Headquarters . . 460

Gateway to British Legation, Moat and Barricade . 468 The Six " Fighting P.a.rsons " and Sergeant AIurphy

at Fort Cockburn 474

Group of American Missionaries present during the

Siege 494

Ruins of Presbyterian Mission, Peking .... 498

Ruins of Methodist Mission, Peking 498

British Legation Wall S02

Chinese Gun Platform for Firing on the Legation . 502

Coming out of Church, Legation Grounds . . . 508

Railway Station, Peking 518

Police Station, Peking S18

Chien Men Gate, Peking 522

Ruins of Chien Men Gate 522

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

FACING PAGE

Y. M. C. A. Headquarters, Peking 528

Street Panorama, Peking 528

Coal Hill, Chinese Serving German Officers . . . 532

Summer Palace from the Lake 532

Tartar Wall, Location of Astronomical Observatory . 545 Temple of Agriculture, Peking, American Headquarters 548 Entrance Temple of Agriculture. American Headquar- ters 548

North China College, T'ung Chou 558

American Board Mission, Tientsin 576

American Board Mission. Tientsin, after the Siege . 576

Arsenal, Tientsin 586

Ruins of Roman Catholic Cathedral. Tientsin . . 586

First British-Chinese Regiment, Wei Hai Wei . . 590

Russian Troops en route to Peking 590

Pei Tai Ho Watering Place, from which Foreigners

WERE rescued BY CONSUL FoWLER 604

Corner of City Wall, Pao Ting Fu, destroyed by Allied

Troops in Punishment for Massacre . . . .611

Pastor Meng, a Martyr of Pao Ting Fu . . . . 680

Miss Gould of Pao Ting Fu and School Girls . . . 682

^Ianchu Family, some of them Christians . . . 700

Nattvx Christian Refugee 700

Vicinity of Legation Street, Peking 722

Dr. Ament Receiving Vill.a.ge Deputation .... 730

MAPS

Map showing routes of Relief Forces .... 438

Plan of British Legation, Peking 480

Map of se.\t of Boxer Disturbance 620

XX

SIEGE LIFE

THERE is need of a digression at this point, to explain certain phases of the routine of siege hfe which are otherwise in danger of being over- looked.

The matter of registration labour supply was one of the first importance. No sooner were the foreigners settled in the Legation and the Chinese in the Su Wang Fu, than a systematic census was begun under the Com- mittee on Registration. The list of foreigners was soon complete and required little revision. That of the Chinese proved for a variety of reasons far more difficult.

Two most important and useful officers in the siege were the Superintendent of Labour and the Registrar. Their work to a large extent dovetailed, the former mainly controlling the Protestant labour supply outside the Lega- tion and the latter the time of every Chinese living within its walls. To the energy, vigilance, kindness, firmness and tact of these two men much of the results achieved is to be attributed. The labour of the Roman Catholics living outside the British Legation, it should be remarked, after an unsatisfactory experiment on the part of the committee, was directed by their priests, and by the French, Japanese and others for whom work was done. The registration put into effect in the Fu was modelled after that which had been found to work successfully in the British Legation.

365

366 CHINA IN CONVULSION

The demand for labour was clamorous and universal. Many of the Legation servants had fled some time before, and others had to be found for their places. All the numerous housekeepers must have a detail of cooks, table boys and coolies ; the hospital required a staff always at the command of the surgeons ; there were many horses to be fed and watered ; the scavenger and other sanitary work was imperative and, like the bakery and laundry, did not admit of irregular depletion of employees. Some educated native Christians, like the scholar class of Chinese, were unused to manual labour and unfitted for it ; but every grade and variety of talent was eventually utilized, especially those able to speak English, who could serve as messengers, interpreters, or overseers. A small percentage of men manifested a rooted and chronic dis- inclination to active effort, but ere long these idiosyn- crasies were dealt with on their real merits.

When the incessant calls for labour had first to be met, much confusion reigned for many days. Let an actual case stand as a sample :

At nine o'clock one evening an order came from Col. Shiba. commanding the Japanese in the Su Wang Fu, for ten men and fifty sand bags for immediate use. The superintendent secured the bags, but could find only four available men. He then waked up another gentleman who, being appointed on a wholly different committee had nothing to do with the present exigency, but assisted on general principles. On arriving at the Fu this gentle- man learned that Col. Shiba had already got the men needed from the Roman Catholics near at hand.

Meantime a note had come to the British Legation from the American Captain on the wall, requiring twenty men to raise higher the western wall of the eastern barri- cade, as the Chinese west barricade was firing into it.

SIEGE LIFE 367

The superintendent excused a lad too small to handle the huge bricks on the wall, and sent the same obliging substitute with the three men on hand to aid the band that were kept permanently in the American Legation for emergencies, but happened on this occasion already to have been working all day. When he arrived there the Captain who gave the order had been relieved, and his successor in charge knew nothing about any call for men, but informed the conductor of the workmen that it had been decided to postpone the work until daylight, when it would be done better. The ad interim assistant, the superintendent and the Chinese were then enabled to retire for what remained of the night.

Perhaps a summons arrived from the French to con- struct an important barricade. No men could be found, for it was late at night, when the labour market, espe- cially the free labour market, is generally closed. A visit to the Fu disclosed numbers of Chinese lying about, but each one proved to have some cherished and dangerous malady. One is the victim of a persistent diarrhcea, an- other shows by a lim.p that his lower leg is broken in two places, the crepitation of the bones being, as he alleges, distinctly audible ; not, however, to the trained ear of the foreign examiner, who soon ascertains that the man is after all able to walk. Some deserve to be excused, but by degrees, between boys and men, the order is filled and they are sent to work.

The superintendent is no more than back at the Lega- tion, ready for bed after an exhausting day's work in reducing order from chaos, when a request comes for ten men immediately to work all night on a new and impor- tant barricade in the Hanlin Yuan. No one but the superintendent can find the men. and to the summons of no one else will they respond. Once more the Fu

368 CHINA IN CONVULSION

must be visited and every sleeping room entered with a lantern. In the darkness dusky forms are dimly seen prone upon the k'angs. Here the drafting process is re- peated, until at length the required number is obtained, but in transit through so many court3^ards and in cross- ing the canal in the darkness it turns out that three out of the ten have escaped, and being unknov^n they cannot be identified. At a later period every man had his number not only entered on the register but sewed upon his cloth- ing, so that evasion of duty like this became impossible.

About midnight one hears a great disturbance and angry remonstrances. The weary registrar is roused from his slumbers by an urgent demand for seventeen of the short shovels used by marines, wanted at once by somebody in another Legation. After an hour's hard work and a visit to every place where digging is known to have been prosecuted the day before, some of them are found, but upon being brought in as a part of what is wanted are refused, for they have not the serrated edges of the Austrian shovels. In the renewed search every doubtful spot is approached with a lantern.

" Put out that light," cries a sentr}-, with the addition of emphatic language. He is informed that the search is being conducted under official orders and will be con- tinued until the required articles are found.

At a later stage, the duty of a ship's yeoman is added to that of the registrar, and the tools, as far as possible, had to be called in at night and kept in a box near the bell tower. Under careless Chinese use, spades, shovels, and picks, of which the supply was originally lamentably small and for which the demand was general and insistent, have their handles broken off and are rendered useless. The assistant registrar afterward added to his many other functions that of general repairer, and as far as possible

SIEGE LIFE 369

counteracted the ravages of the wasteful cooHe. The Chinese carpenters were kept busy making handles, as also the blacksmiths in their efforts to point iron rods so as to serve as picks or crowbars.

As the result of an orderly evolution of registry every Chinese on the premises came to be known not only by name but by his reputation ; the better and more thor- ough workmen requiring little or no supervision, the lazy and inefficient ones needing constant stimulus. Each man was provided with a ticket good for that day only, en- titling him to one meal or to two, according to the amount of work done. When he had finished his work and eaten his meal he returned to his family in the Fu. After the Fu was mostly lost, and it became necessary to remove the Protestants to the vacant houses between the canal and the American Legation, the task of getting labour was much expedited. Those liable to night work were then kept on the premises where they were needed, and where they could not escape. If a man living in the Fu were derelict in his work at the Legation his pass was taken away and he could not get out to return to his family, a punishment generally quite sufficient, as their food depended upon him.

Some Chinese were fortunate or provident enough to have food supplies of their own, which rendered them in a measure independent. In a solitary instance a man of some education after persistently refusing to work, and repeated warnings, was at last tied to a post with his hands behind him, there to remain until his views upon the relation of military law to muscular activity and to rations became materially modified, which happened within a few hours.

The carelessness of the Chinese in everywhere knock- ing out the burning ashes of their pipes, made it neces-

370 CHINA IN CONVULSION

sary to forbid smoking in buildings. Those guilty of violating this rule were put on duty for four-and-twenty hours continuously. In an especially aggravated case the cook of one of the Legations was discovered to have built a fire of a dangerous and unlawful kind late at night, to see how to take care of his child. At whatever incon- venience to individuals the authority of the committee, found by experience to be just and wholesome, was sustained against all appeals, of which, however, there were but few. Those liable to punishment were sent to whatever work was most urgent ; if it chanced that for the time there was none such, they might temporarily escape.

But however perfect the system of registration and labour supply, the simultaneous demand for details of men who were not available necessarily made many hitches in the progress of military work. Thus six men were de- tailed for labour on fortifications in the Hanlin, but at that juncture a pile of sand bags had fallen in a heavy shower from a hospital window into a gutter, stopping the drainage. The six men were deflected from the less to the more pressing task, but while on the way one of them was called ofif to carry to the Chinese hospital a woman who in a time of special danger had been shot in crossing the canal from the Fu.

The need of labour made it necessary to require from every able-bodied Chinese two hours' work each day for the public, which often proved irksome alike to servants, mistress and superintendents.

Against this requisition, which was later supplemented by another for the whole time of one or more of the large staff of servants, some employers were disposed to re- monstrate vigorously. One gentleman who had at first been very energetic in his cooperation, at a later period

SIEGE LIFE 371

asked a detail of men for the purpose of getting his pri- vate dwelling ready for a rain, and still later for two labourers to clear up the grounds of the Russian Lega- tion. The unforgetting Registrar recollecting that two of this gentleman's servants had for some time evaded duty, went to his kitchen and called them out. They ob- jected that they were not liable, as they did not live in the British but in the Russian Legation.

" Exactly," was the reply, " there is where you are to work," and the amazed and abused master was then pre- sented with two of his own servants to do his own work in his own Legation!

The work done by the besieged Christians, often hard and exhausting, in no case rewarded with anything more than a bare subsistence, was in general performed with characteristic Chinese patience and perseverance, many of them, under the tireless supervision of foreigners, throw- ing into it much energy, and in some cases considerable skill.

Indeed their behaviour was almost uniformly admir- able. Instead of being a dead-weight to be carried by foreigners as many of these besieged feared they would be, they were soon found to be an indispensable means to the salvation of the rest, and except they had abode in the ship none would have been saved. As in all large bodies collected at random, there were some black sheep, and many speckled ones, but as a rule the patient, uncom- plaining fidelity of the Christians in toilsome tasks under dangerous conditions was beyond praise. The steadiness under constant attacks, and in the midst of repeated re- movals from one unsafe place to another, manifested by the Chinese women, and especially by the 120 and more school girls, were also noteworthy. Many Chinese were furnished with rifles, and fought at the loop-holes side

372 CHINA IN CONVULSION

by side with the plucky and soldierly Japanese, winning even their cordial commendation. A good number were killed in posts of danger, many others were struck by the innumerable flying bullets, two of the best helpers of the Methodists one of them an ordained pastor falling at the same time.

Many others fell victims to disease, and probably a score or two of poor Chinese children died from disease aggravated by mal-nutrition, but the mothers bore their deep grief with Christian fortitude, and uttered no word of reproach to the Fate in which all non-Christian Chinese have a firm faith, but rather thanked the Heavenly 'Father for such mercies as they still enjoyed.

Each day there was a gathering both of Chinese and foreigners upon the lawn, to examine the growing pile of clothing and other stuff brought into the Legation. This may be a fitting opportunity to explain in detail the method of dealing with confiscated goods. The area enclosed by the numerous Legations being extensive, it was inevitable that many Chinese families who had no connection either with foreigners or with the Boxers should find them- selves gradually encircled with troops, making entrance and exit increasingly difficult, and a prosecution of their ordinary business impossible.

As time went on most of these families became alarmed at the outlook and fied while it was not yet too late, some of them, however, leaving behind trustworthy servants to look after their premises. But numberless dwelling houses and many shops were absolutely deserted, some of the latter being well stocked with goods of many sorts, and many of the former being well furnished. In the confusion of the time it was inevitable that many shops and houses should be exposed to raids from neighbours who remained, as well :is from needy Christians, many of

iLiiH

SIEGE LIFE 373

whom had fled for their Hves with only the clothing which they wore.

Soon after the general gathering into the British Le- gation, when it became necessary to check promiscuous pillage and to secure a wise use of the miscellaneous articles thus placed within reach, Dr. Ament was ap- pointed a committee with plenary powers. An impromptu depository of second-hand clothing was established on the tennis court lawn, resembling the storeroom of a Chinese pawnshop. For many days it supplied hundreds of Chi- nese with clothing and bedding for themselves and their families, until the demand appeared to be fairly met. But many Chinese were unable while at work to guard their possessions, and others ruined their clothes in the heavy rains, or while labouring in the damp trenches or on the wall ; these had to be resupplied, yet still the inflow kept on. Foreigners, too, drew liberally from the same source, until the superintendence of the business became a heavy load of responsibility and care.

When there was a scarcity of material for sand bags the Chinese women cut apart many wadded garments, whose legs and arms, filled with earth, were used to add to the prophylactic embankments on the walls and house- tops. In quest of bag material, scores (perhaps hun- dreds) of Chinese houses were entered, but nothing was anywhere taken by force. Some of these dwellings had already been visited and largely despoiled, but others were fresh fields and pastures new. A great variety of articles which at first appeared to have no relation to the wants of a beleaguered garrison, ultimately proved to be most useful, especially tools from a blacksmith's shop and an old Chinese cannon nicknamed " Betsy," or " The Inter- national." Some of the abandoned dwellings had been forsaken in hot haste, and contained elegant garments.

374 CHINA IN CONVULSION

pieces of silk, furs, valuable chinaware, clocks and curios. A large quantity of such articles was found in the Su Wang Fu. One of the Japanese barricades was largely composed of trunks full of priceless raiment, seized as the most available material ; all of this was ruined by contact with earth, or by rains, or was destroyed in the fires.

The Christians lodged in the Su Wang Fu gave early information of the probable concealment of a considerable quantity of sycee silver, which was brought away and stored in the strong room of the British Legation until the close of the siege. Small guns were also found in some of the shops, and also many irredeemable bank bills. On one occasion about seventy taels was discovered in a coal pile, and other amounts were doubtless confiscated by the Chinese on their own account.

The owners of two foreign stores on Legation Street decided to abandon them, bringing into the Legation what- ever could be saved. As the siege became closer and the risk in visiting the stores became evident by the whis- tling of bullets and the killing of one of the workmen, the owner of the larger one gave notice that whoever wished to take any of the remaining articles was wel- come to do so. It was an unfortunate and ill-judged step, which for a few days made looting legal, and so facili- tated the universal diffusion of intoxicating liquors that an order was soon issued forbidding any one what- ever to visit the place without the express permission of the General Committee. Thereafter, the articles res- cued were put into the hands of a commissariat and is- sued only upon due requisition, a course which should have been adopted from the first.

During the brief reign of unchecked lawlessness the general demoralization was very great. Many messes

SIEGE LIFE 375

of poor Chinese ate their rice out of broken crockery, but with the addition perhaps of a plate-glass mirror set in a plush frame, or a cut-glass syrup pitcher flanked by a marble clock. The commissariat issued not only stores and utensils but everything which came to hand. All the memoranda of the progress of the siege were entered in note books, with pencil or pen and ink, all of which had been secured by application to the obliging supply com- mittee. One had but to make his necessities sufficiently known to insure such a supply for them as the case ad- mitted, for the besieged in a most literal sense had all things common.

The bulletin boards, where were posted the translations of the " Peking Gazettes " obtained during the armistice, were surrounded for days with a crowd that exhibited the keenest interest in the utterances of that unique publica- tion. Many of these were printed many weeks before, but some of them were highly important, and most of them quite new.

The most important utterance among them was a de- cree issued the day after the murder of the German Min- ister, but significantly making no reference whatever to that occurrence. It is a window through which the Chinese side of the international question may be seen. It ran as follows :

" Ever since the foundation of the dynasty, foreigners coming to China have been kinclly treated. In the reign of Tao Kuang and Hsian Feng they were allowed to trade ; they also asked leave to propagate their religion, a request which the Throne reluctantly granted. At first they were amenable to Chinese control, but for the past thirty years they have taken advantage of China's for- bearance to encroach on China's territory and trample on the Chinese people and to demand China's wealth. Every

376 CHINA IN CONVULSION

concession made by China increased their reliance on vio- lence. They oppressed peaceful citizens and insulted the gods and holy men, exciting the most burning indig- nation among the people. Hence the destruction of the chapels and the slaughter of converts by the patriotic braves. The Throne was anxious to avoid war and issued edicts enjoining the protection of the Legations and pity to the converts. The decrees declaring Boxers and con- verts to be equally the children of the State were issued with the hope of removing the old feud between people and converts and extreme kindness was shown to the strangers from afar.

" But these people knew no gratitude and increased their pressure. A despatch w^as yesterday sent by Du Chaylard, Doyen of the Consular body at Tientsin, call- ing on us to deliver up the Taku forts into their keeping, otherwise they would be taken by force. These threats show their aggressions. In all matters relating to inter- national intercourse we have never been wanting in courtesies to them ; but they, while styling themselves civilized States, have acted without regard for right, re- lying solely on their military force.

" We have now reigned nearly thirty years and have treated the people as our children, the people honouring us as their deity ; and in the midst of our reign we have been the recipients of the gracious favour of the Empress Dowager. Furthermore our ancestors have come to our aid and the gods have answered to our call, and never has there been so universal a mani- festation of loyalty and patriotism. With tears have we announced the war in the ancestral shrines. Better to do our utmost and enter on the struggle than seek some means of self preservation involving eternal dis- grace. All our officials, high and low, are of one mind.

SIEGE LIFE 377

and there have assembled without official summons sev- eral hundred thousand patriotic soldiers [Boxers], even children carrying spears in the service of their country. Those others rely on crafty schemes ; our trust is in heaven's justice. They depend on violence, we on hu- manity. Not to speak of the righteousness of our cause, our provinces number more than twenty, our people over four hundred millions, and it will not be difficult to vindi- cate the dignity of our country."

Another Decree, in the "Gazette" of June 21st, ex- presses the satisfaction with which the Throne has re- ceived the report of the Governor General of Chihli, Yii Lu, of the successful engagements at Tientsin on the I7th-i9th of that month, and gives much praise to the Boxers who have done great services without any assist- ance either of men or money from the State. Great favour will be shown them later on, and they must con- tinue to show their devotion. The phraseology of the Decrees already cited serve as an excellent specimen of the Janus-faced utterances of the Empress Dowager in regard to the Boxers. They are violators of treaties, have been often rebuked and must now positively disperse, yet a few days later they are loyal and patriotic, and de- serve well of their Empress, who will reward them.

On the 24th of June the Board of Revenue is ordered to give Kang I two hundred bags of rice for distribution as provisions among the Boxers. Still another Decree of the same date mentions, as previously quoted, that since the Boxers now styled " Boxer Militia " are scattered all around Peking and Tientsin, it is necessary and proper that they should have Superintendents placed over them (in other words be definitely and fully accepted as in the employ of the Chinese Government). Accordingly Prince Chuang, and the Assistant Grand Secretary Kang I were

378 CHINA IN CONVULSION

appointed to the general command, Ying Nien to act as brigadier general of the left wing, and Tsai Lan of the right. All the members of the I Ho T'uan (it is re- marked) are exerting their utmost energies, and the Im- perial Family must not fall behind in harbouring revenge against our enem.ies. It is Our confident hope that the desires of each and all be successfully consummated, and it is of the utmost importance that no lack of energy be shown.

On the 27th, Edicts commanded Yu Lu to retake the Taku Forts, and to prevent the foreign troops from creep- ing northward ; and ordered the distribution of one hun- dred thousand taels of silver to the divisions of troops in the Metropolitan districts, and a like sum to the Box- ers assisting them.

During these weeks there are frequent references in memorials and in Imperial Decrees to the general law- lessness which had resulted from the encouragement to irresponsible private individuals, as well as to soldiers, to take vengeance. Were there no other proof, these documents alone would show that the Capital and its en- virons were under a reign of terror, against which there are numerous protests both from Censors and from the Empress herself.

But the mischief is always laid to those who pretended to belong to the Boxer Militia in order to plunder and kill, and it is these (and not the Boxers as a class) who are ordered to be rigorously dealt with. On the 2nd of July another important Edict appeared, under the aegis of which the slaughter of all foreigners, mission- aries not more than others, anrl the extermination of all native Christians who would not recant, became a duty.

" Ever since Foreign Nations began the propaga- tion of their religion there have been instances through-

SIEGE LIFE 379

out the country of ill-feeling between the people and the converts. All this is due to faulty administration on the part of local authorities, giving rise to feuds. The truth is that the converts also are children of the State, and among them are not wanting good and worthy people ; but they have been led away by false doctrines, and have relied on the missionary for support, with the result that they have committed many misdeeds. They hold to their errors and will not turn from them, and irreconcilable enmity has thus grown up between the converts and the people.

" The Throne is now exhorting every member of the Boxer Militia to render loyal and patriotic service, and to take his part against the enemies of his country, so that the whole population may be of one mind. Knowing that the converts are also subjects owing fealty to the Throne, we also know that they can bring themselves to form a class apart and invite their own destruction. If they can change their hearts there is no reason why they should not be allowed to escape from the net. The Viceroys and Governors of the Provinces are all there- fore to give orders to all local officials to issue the fol- lowing notification : All those among the converts who repent of their former errors and give themselves up to the authorities, shall be allowed to reform, and their past shall be ignored. The public shall also be notified that in all places where converts reside, they shall be al- lowed to report to the local authorities, and each case will be settled according to general regulations which will be drawn up later.

" As hostilities have now broken out between China and Foreign Nations, the missionaries of every country must be driven away at once to their own countries, so that they may not linger here and make trouble. But it is

380 CHINA IN CONVULSION

important that measures be taken to secure their protec- tion on their journey. The high provincial authorities shall make close investigation into the circumstances of all places within their jurisdiction, and speedily take the necessary steps. Let there be no carelessness. (The above Decree is to be circulated for general informa- tion.) "

The putting forth of this Edict was doubtless regarded by its authors as the happy issue of a long and doubtful contest, in which China by a few sweeps of a camel's- hair pencil had now obliterated forty years of the Past, and entered upon a new era!

On the 9th of July Li Hung Chang was appointed Viceroy of Chihli, and Superintendent of the Trade which the rulers of China had by this time extinguished in that part of the Empire. Pending Li's arrival, the former Governor General, Yii Lu, was to consult with Prince Ch'ing as to the best measures to be taken, and the latter are warned against a slackening of responsibility.

On the I2th of July Gen. Nieh, who fought near Tien- tsin, is severely rated for his failures and blunders and deprived of his rank although retained in command (a favourite Chinese punishment), and in the same sentence his death at the head of his troops is mentioned without comment.

On July 15th the Acting Governor of Shansi quotes a Decree which had been issued on the 20th of June to the several Governors General, and Governors, in which the following significant sentence occurs : " They must suggest plans for safe-guarding the boundaries of the Empire against the aggressive designs of the foreigner, and see that reenforcements be sent to the assistance of the Capital, in order that no disaster befall the Dynasty."

Three days later ai)pcared a Decree which sets forth

SIEGE LIFE 381

another aspect of the international troubles, again refers to the murder of the Japanese Chancellor, and for the first time mentions that of the German Minister, nearly a month previous, carefully avoiding the least informa- tion as to the circumstances.

By this time the pressure of events succeeding the capture of Tientsin began to be severely felt in Peking, and the dissensions among the followers of the Empress were at their maximum.

" The reason for the fighting between the Chinese and the foreigners sprung from a disagreement between the people and the Christian converts. We could but enter upon war when the forts at Taku were taken. Never- theless the Government is not willing lightly to break off the friendly relations which have existed. We have re- peatedly issued Edicts to protect the Ministers of the dif- ferent countries. We have also ordered the missionaries in the various provinces to be protected. The fighting has not yet become extensive. There are many mer- chants of the various countries within our dominions. All alike should be protected. It is ordered that the Generals and Governors examine carefully where there are merchants or missionaries, and still, according to the provisions of the treaties, protect them without the least carelessness. Last month the Chancellor of the Japanese Legation was killed. This was indeed most unexpected. Before this matter had been settled, the German Minister was killed. Suddenly meeting this affair caused us deep grief. We ought vigorously to seek the murderer and punish him.

" Aside from the fighting at Tientsin, the Metropolitan Department (Shun Tien Fu) and the Governor General of this province should command officers under them to examine what foreigners have been causelessly killed,

382 CHINA IN CONVULSION

and what property destroyed, and report the same, that all may be settled together. The vagabonds who have been burning houses, robbing and killing the people these many days have produced a state of chaos. It is ordered that the Governors General, Governors, and high military officials clearly ascertain the circumstances, and unite in reducing the confusion to order and quiet, and root out the cause of the disturbance."

XXI

DAYS OF WAITING

SUNDAY, July 22. Early this morning some of the Chinese went out through the water-gate into the southern city to buy fruit, but when others tried it a little later they were fired upon, so that the market is spoiled. Labour on the barricades was sus- pended at II A. M., the first time this has been practicable, as on most of the previous Sundays work has been more urgent than on other days.

The courier to Tientsin with messages got off about noon, and the package was so large that he asked to have its size reduced a little for better concealment. (To many friends of the besieged the word brought by this courier was the first gleam of hope after almost utter despair.) The baby of Dr. and Mrs. John Inglis died during the day, and was buried at nightfall, one of the six infants who succumbed during the siege.

It is rumoured that the Japanese, always the most en- terprising collectors of outside reports, have heard that our troops have already got half way to Peking travel- ling along the bank of the river. Tung Fu Hsiang is said to have lost his influence, and his men are scattering from him, but according to others he has gone out to oppose our troops. The Chinese have put up a new barricade in the Hanlin. A Chinese soldier has in- formed some one that we are now surrounded by only about 900 men.

383

384 CHINA IN CONVULSION

Monday, July 23. A heavy rain came on in the evening yesterday and kept up all night. There were many collapses of barricades, and in the Hanlin a part of a house-wall suddenly fell, covering the mattresses upon which the volunteers had just been lying. The buildings in Peking are as insubstantial as any others in China, often being composed of small pieces of bricks not larger than one's fist, bound loosely together with mud and a mere suggestion of lime. The result is that whenever a heavy and continuous rain-fall occurs, the walls may be heard falling in all directions often to the danger of those living within the flimsy structures. The rain is very destructive to the sand bags, especially to the more expensive ones, which are not meant for such a strain as this. Many of them collapse into mere heaps of slush.

Early this morning the Norwegian whose mind had become unbalanced took advantage of the rain, the dark- ness, and the slumbering guards, British and Chinese, to make his escape over the wall, desirous of speedily falling into the hands of the Chinese, where it is feared he will not fare so well as he expects. It is said that despite the apparent diminution in the number of Chinese troops, they are building new barricades. Yesterday a dog was sent from one of their fortifications to one of ours, with a letter in his mouth all that is left in Peking of the Imperial Postal Service !

Tuesday, July 24. It was very hot in the night, so that many could not sleep. The Japanese Secretary of Legation, Mr. Harahara, died of tetanus, greatly re- gretted both by foreigners and Japanese. He had the reputation of a great knowledge of China, and was uni- versally liked. There appeared to be a severe attack upon the Pei Tang last night, judging by the constant sounds

DAYS OF WAITING 385

of firing there. On the wall the coolies worked at the barricade till after nine o'clock, when the Chinese began firing on them, and the work stopped.

Notwithstanding the " truce " firing goes on, and four Chinese have been wounded in the Fu to-day, as well as one Italian, A mat-shed has been erected over the de- fences at the front gate of the British Legation, to pre- vent it from being ruined by the heavy rain, and only one shot was fired by the Chinese.

After dark a notice was posted that Col. Shiba had seen a Chinese who told him that foreign troops occupied Yang Ts'un on the 17th, and fought a battle