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I

f''

A DICTIONARY

OP THE

CREE LANGUAGE,

AS SPOKEN BY THE INDIANS

OF THE

HUDSON'S BAY COMPANY'S TERRITORIKS.

roMPILED BY

THE REV. E. A. WATKTNS,

MISSIONARY OF THE CHURCH MISSIONARY SOCIETY. CONSISTING OF

PART I. ENGLISH-CREE. PART II. CREE-ENGLISH.

I

LONDON : SOCIETY FOR PROMOTING CHRISTIAN KNOWLEDGE;

SOLD AT THE DEPOSITORIES :

77 GREAT QUEEN STREET, LINCOLN'S INN FIELDS; 4 ROYAL EXCHANGE ; 48 PICCADILLY,

AND BY ALL BOOKSELLERS. 1865.

f ^\ 3 2 Z

"J.

{

158084

W. M. WATTS, CROWN COURT, TEMTLE BAK.

PREFACE.

Having been appointed to labor jis a Missionary amongst the Cree Indians of the Hudson' s-BayCompany's territories, I considered that the first duty devolving upon me after arriving at my Station was to apply myself to the study of the native language. A Grammar by the late Mr. Howso was in existence, but beyond this there was no work calculated to render assistance, and I soon felt the need of a Dictionary, or a copious and well- arranged Vocabulary. To supply to some extent this want, I commenced the collecting of Indian words, having no object in view but that of providing myself with a manuscript as a reference in cases where memory might prove treacherous. In the course of time, however, the collection began to assume somewhat bulky proportions, and it then occurred to me, that, with some extra exertion, a work might be prepared which would be useful to my brother Missionaries, or other persons who might wish to acquire a knowledge of the language. I therefore determined to enlarge the range of my efforts, and the result has been the production of the following pages, which are now presented to the public, and form the frat Dictionary^ I believe, ever published in the Cree language. The number of words contained in the Cree-English Part is about 13,500, to colkct which has been a laborious though interesting occupation, calling for perseverance and patient investigation, as I have not had the advantage of the slightest assistance from the labors of any previous lexicographer. The compiler of the fird Dictionary in any language has a work before

111

--" 1^ i|,^ ni>.

PREFACE.

him beyond all comparison greater than that of his successors. They add decorations to the building, remove some inequalities, fill up some interstices, and make such alterations as may conduce to the general improvement and increased utility, but he has the labor of collecting the materials and erecting the whole fabric. If the work as now com- pleted should be found to contain some inaccuracies, there will be no cause for surprise; the wonder would rather be if it were otherwise. Several thousands of the words are no doubt properly described and explained, as I have become perfectly familiar with them from having resided for eleven years amongst the Indians, during which time, after having acquired their language, I made constant use of it in discharging the various duties which devolved upon me as a Missionary at an isolated Station, amongst a half-civilized people. Other words there are of more infrequent use, about which I cannot speak so positively ; still even these have not been hastily decided upon. Numbers of them were upon the tapis for weeks, and in some instances even for months, before I finally noted down what I considered to be their exact meaning and application, having carefully examined them, first with one person and then with another, as opportunities presented themselves.

It is not unlikely that some typographical errors may have escaped detection, whilst examining the proof-sheets, and for these I must ask indulgence.

I have not endeavored to swell the dimensions of the Dictionary by the introduction of new terms, as I consider that the office of a Lexico- grapher is rather to collect the words already in use than to coin fresh ones. The work of inventing terms must be left to the judgment of the experienced translator, who will form his decision in each case when meeting with an expression for which he cannot find any appropriate

rendering ae yet in existence, iv

PREFACE.

'y add some eneral ecting K com- be no erwise. jd and having B, after larging solated )f more n these )on the [ finally [ication, ;n with

escaped ust ask

nary by Lexico- in fresh ment of se when ►ropriate

1 have introduced a few SaultemuK words, but their number is very small. At most of the Cree settlements there are to be found one or two families who have originally come from considerable distances, and have brought with them some strange terms, which have gradually become I mingled with those in common use, and consequently require explanation.

I cannot be so sanguine as to hope that the result of my labors will prove free from all errors or imperfections ; but notwithstanding these, I trust that the work will be a valuable aid to any persons who may wish to study the language of the Cree Indians, whether it be from the love of philological investigation, or from the wish to become qualified to carry on trade amongst the natives, or from the higher and holier desires of the Evangelist to enlighten the minds and elevate the souls of the wandering outcasts of the wilderness. After having spent many happy hours, snatched from other engagements, in investigating tiie structure of a beautiful language, and seeing its native richness of expression, I now bring my labors to a close, and would entrust the work to the blessing of the Almighty, and shall feel thankful, if by my efforts I shall be pri- vileged to help forward to any extent the welfare of the race with whom I have been many years associated.

It will be needful to make some explanatory remarks on various points connected with the following pagtt.. and these, for the sake of con- venience, I will place under separate heads. ... r ' I

ORTHOGRAPHY.

In the main I have adhered to the spelling adopted by Archdeacon Hunter in the Prayer-Book, and the Gospels of St. Mark and St. John published under his supervision, feeling that it is undesirable to intro- duce a new system, even though it might be more critically accurate, or

PREFACE.

have the sanction of high authority. The principal alterations that J have made have been

f u

i 1

1. The avoiding of double ronmnmits as much as possible.

2. The omitting of the letter t before ch.

3. The introducing of a uniformity in the use of o and o<>, and *

4. The disuse of the double e. '" A few remarks on these several points will be foxind below. ' '' '^

In the Archdeacon's books some diversity of spelling is observable, as might be expected in works printed before the orthography became actually settled by usage. Instances of this may be seen in the following words, as met with respectively in the Gospels of Mark and John

St. Murk.

St. John.

kinapik

kenapik

a serpent

nipaw

nippaw

he sleeps-

s^ekoo

sikoo

he spits.

usine (and once in

ussine

a stone.

aS^^ John)

^•>' yik^hipan * * : i.

ikahepan

a sponge.

■,•■■«

In the system that I have adopted it will be observed that there are no silent letters, so that every vowel and consonant is to receive its proper sound, except in some very rare instances, where the required pronuncia- tion could not be expressed without the use of a diphthong. Hence such words as nipe, pime, are not to be pronounced as the English mono- syllables S7iipef pine, but to be made into distinct dissyllables, as if written

nip-pe, pim-me. vi

PREFACE.

CONSONANTS. \ '

Several of the coiiHoiiauts used in the English language are not found in the Cree, but those which are employed take the usual pronunciation. The letters that are wanting are 6, d, f\ j\ q^ r, v, x, and z. For the full expression of many words a double consonant seems to be required ', thus, liippQ, piwwie, ki«,vew^ak, mott;?<^uchetow, no?«;M>usoonum, but in most cases I have made use of only a sim/le one, in order to avoid adding unneces- sarily to the length of the words, and it will be found that a very slight acquaintance with the language will be sufficient to prevent mistakes. The following words may be given as a specimen of those which are spelt with one consonant instead of two

nipe,

pime,

kupow,

kunowayetum,

chimisisew,

nupukow,

water, fat, grease, he goes ashore, he takes care of it, he is short, it is flat,

not nii)po. ,, pimme. kuppow

5>

?>

kunnowav«^tum.

chimmisisew nuppukow.

C/. This letter is not used in its hard sound, as in catj cajy^ cut^ but is always followed by h, and takes the soft sound as in church. I have omitted the use of t before ch, as it seems quite unneces- sary. In this 1 differ from the practice of Archdeacon Hunter in all such words as the following naspich, tawichy maivuche^ ussichey which he writes naspitch, taivitch, tfec.

G, whenever used, has its hard sound as in gun^ goose, get. It is not frequently met with, and in those words in which it is employed, it is altered in some localities almost invariably into h.

L. There are many parts of the country in which this letter is never

VI I

PREFACE.

heard. Its cniployniont, is, I believe, entirely confined to a district round Moose Factory, James' Bay, where it is in constant use for the ?j, </, or th of other places, as will be explained below.

Q is a letter that 1 have dispensed with entirely, and, in its stead, have used kwf following the practice of Archdeacon Hunter.

R. Some persons consider that the Indians occasionally make use of this letter, but I contend that it is not so, except in the case of those who, by living amongst English-speaking people, have acquired the ability to pronounce it, and then, perhaps, sometimes substitute it for the v,

VOWELS.

A. For the three sounds of this letter as heard respectively mfathery fat., and fate^ I have adopted distinct forms, thus, a, A, and a. When a is final, it is pronounced short, as in Chinay or in the Latin words 7num, meitmy &c. In these cases a strict phonetic system would have required the letter w, but as this is quite contraiy to general usage, and in itself not really necessary, I have not adopted it. When the open or Italian sound of a is required as a final, I have expressed it by the added A, thus ahy as in dkahy sepah, to mark the distinction between these words and such as mena, Jceya, uta.

E. This letter is usually pronounced long, as I had thought it de- sirable to avoid the ee. In cases where there is a fear of the short prominciation being given erroneously, I have guarded against it by using the long mark, thus e, as in the termination of the pres. indie, of verbs of the 5th conj. and in a few cases where the difference of length in sound causes a diversity of

vlii

PRRFArE.

B(l to a ;onstant i below, ad, have

3 use of J case of le, have metinies

n fathe/% I, and a. I' in the phonetic is quite 3ssary, I of a is thus ah, )G words

it it de- of the guarded (lination w cases rsity of

meaning, as mistmdoy he betrays him, mi»imdo^ he c)icws liini. In some few cases where the short sound is required I have in- dicated it by ^, but I have avoided this diacritical mark as nmch as possible, as a very slight acquaintance with the language will prevent any mistakes on this point. Km used instead of i before y, in words where this latter letter is the dialectic substitute for /, w, or th of other districts, thus

eymew,

^.yek6ok,

k?.?/ipe,

sepc^uwasew,

tapgyuwasew,

a man, as long as, make haste, he forbears, he is content,

for //ilew. tVAek6ok. k?7ipe. septwuwasew. tapiwuwasew.

>>

>>

In some words I have used e simply because that letter seems pretty well settled by usage, although the sound is nearer that of i, as, for in- stance, in numerous cases of such verbs as itay^tinn, kiskay6turn, mise- may^tum.

I. This letter has its short sound, as in pin, whenever it is followed

by a consonant, but when succeeded by a vowel it is longy as in

2nou8, In this arrangement I have been guided by the usual

custom in English, as seen in such examples as diamond^ diet,

f/iant, iota, phiaL When i is final it is long, except in the few

instances in which it forms part of a diphthong, as in upwoi,

iipumoi, utai.

In the w(#ds dokimow, a chief, and munito, a spirit, I have used an

i instead of an e in the second syllable, and have thus departed from the

orthography as usually adopted by other persons. The coiTect sound

is certainly much better represented by i than e, as it is precisely similar

to the i in such words as luci/er, rudiment, rumimtuf, unicorn. In some

6.1

IX

ll) !

PREFACE

other words too, such as mechisoo, I have used an i as the second syllabic

is undoubtedly shorter than the first.

0. This letter I have invariably used in its Iou(/ sound, as in no, go. In Archdeacon Hunter's books there is a great want of unifor- mity in the pronunciation of this letter, for which it seems diffi-

' cult to assign any reason. The double letter oo is frequently

employed, but in numerous instances it is omitted where the sound would undoubtedly require it. Thus we have mosiik, osam, oske, ota, totam, olce'; ussotumowao, nunaskomoo, and many other words, wiitten with a single o where the sound is precisely as in the English words soon, moon, tfcc.

IJ. This letter has invariably the short sound, as in 7ini, hut, whether it be initial or otherwise. ,

INTERCHANGEABLE LETTERS.

There are certain consonants which are found to be interchangeable, and these constitute the dialectic differences of the language. The letters which imdergo this permutation are /, n, fh, and ;//. The changes made by them may be illustrated by exhibiting a few words as spoken in differ ent localities, thus

;j Moose Factory,

The Plains.

English Ricer.

East Main.

» ililew,

ininew.

ithinew,

eyiyew, a man

kilipe,

kinipe,

kithipe,

cheyipe, make haste

1 italetum,

itan^tum,

itathetum,

itayetum, ^he thinks

i| milwasin,

minwasin,

mitliwasin.

meywasin, it is good

1 lootin.

nootin,

thootin,

yootin, tJie wind

,i ilek6ok, ;.. r.

, inek6ok,

ithek6ok,

eyek6ok, as much. i

1 These changes

» i

are a little confusing at first,

but after a pers<3n has been

PREFACE.

y^llablc

710, go. inifor- is diffi- [iiently ;re the mosuhj 1 miiny rccisely

vlicthcr

igeablo, ! letters

s

made h differ

haste nks tood lid ick.

as

resident for a time in any particular locality, and has become familiarized with the dialect, he will soon find but little difficulty in undei'standing the natives in case of a removal to a different part of the country.

Besides these changes, there are other minor ones of a local nature. These may be seen as illustrated in the instances given below.

ch into t. Thus chupuses^ below, becomes tiipits^es ; 7n\cJnrhe, the hand becomes mitiche; issech'tchaifcw, he stretches out his haiidso, be- comes issetichdi/ew.

k into ch. This change is one of very frequent occurrence on the East- Main coast, where the soft sound of ch is incessantly hejird. Thus, such words as keya^ keyipe, kesach, kesik, hakekd, kakakeiv, are pronounced cheya, cheyipe^ chesach, cliesik, /tachechd, chachachew. In a vast quantity of words elsewhere written with a k, we have here ch as the rule, and k as the exception.

k into s. This change is only seen in a few instances, as tuklnd, con- tinually, altered into tusind.

s into sh. This is a change whicli is observed very much along the coast of Hudson's Bav, and is considered characteristic of the dialect of the Swampy Crees. It is of incessant recurrence. A few examples will illustrate it ; thus

vsesep, a duck, becomes sheshcp

owasis, a child, iskwasis, a little girl, sepesis, a brook, sisoonum, he rubs it,

t into ch. For instance tootoosapoo, milk, is pronounced choochoosapoo

tctipipuyew, it tnrvs round, chechipiyuyew

?>

??

>)

owashish ishkwashish shepeshish shishoonum

XI

f

il

PREFACE.

tetipitapanaskoos, a ivheelbmrotv, is pronounced chechipichapauaskoos mutw'atichikun. a belly mutw'achichikun

kitta, particle for that, kiche, or simply 'cbe ,

This change is also of frequent occurrence in diminutives, thus

utim, a dog, dimin. uchimoosis, a little dog

miskootakai, a coat, miskoochakas, a little coat

wutupewut, a basket, wutupewuchis, a small basket

th into s. This is a change of only rare occurrence ; thus

mithkoosew, /m? is red, becomes miskoosew.

DIVERSITY OP PRONUNCIATION.

Where the exact pronunciation of words has not been fixed by a lengthened use of a ivritten language there will always be found a consi- derable diversity. This will be observed in some degree amongst those who live in the same locality, but to a much greater extent where the people are scattered over a vast territory, and have scarcely any inter- communication, as is the case with the natives of Prince Rupert's Land. Even in a civilized country there is frequently seen a want of uniformity amongst the illiterate classes, although they have more or less intercourse with the educated persons around them ; but where the language is merely oral the diversity will be much greater. Some of these ditFerences of pronunciation, as noticeable amongst the Cree Indians, will be seen in the following examples, in which the letters specified are used indiffe- rently. Thus

a or u. As anooch, or un6och ; Sssiche or ussiche ; ay'akoonow or ayiV koonow ; t'S,kooch or ti'ikooch ; apew or upew ; t'atoo or ti\too ; t&twow or tutwow ; t'a-ki\chikun or ti^kichikun. In some dis- tricts the a is more prevalent, and in others the u.

f

Ml

PREFACE.

',et

[ by a consi-

: those

ire the inter- Land.

brmity course

merely ices of seen incUffe-

or ayu- tiHoo ; ne dis-

a or a (pronounced ah), as tapiskakun or tapiskakun ; inatowao or

niatowao ; usatao, or usatao and also asatao. ku or kl, as waskuhikun, or waskihikun. kwu or koo, as tukwutamao, or tukootaniao. In some instances koo

seems to intimate design,, and hvn, continc/enci/, as in pekoohum,

he breaks it (designedly), pekwuhum, he breaks it (accidentally),

but this distinction is not frequently observed, nu or n', as nutookwuhao or n'tookwuhao ; niitoopuyevv or n'too"

puyew. oo or we, as 003'akun or weyakun ; oonayimao or wenayimao. oos or WHS, as ooskatukow or wuskatukow ; oospitapan or wuspitapan.

This is a change frequently obseiTed at the commencement of

words, wi or wu, as peswawiyan or pewawuyan ; pusukwihikun or pusukwu-

hikun ; wapoowiyan or wapoowuyan. The word nummuweya, no, takes the three distinct sounds of ah, 0,

and u in the second syllable ; thus, nitmmahweya, or nummoweya,

or nummuweya. The most common pronunciation is with the m,

but the other sounds are not infrequently heard, especially

the 0.

There are a few words which alter the vowels of the firet and second syllables ; thus, pawunew is sometimes changed into powanew ; and some instances occur of the initial letters nii being reversed ; thus, nutow- apumao, nutowa^nmao, &c., become untowapumao, unto way imao, &c.

DIFFERENT SIGNIFICATIONS.

It not unfrequently happens that the same word is used in different

senses in localities at a distance from each other. Numerous instances

of this diversity may be pointed out amongst the illiterate classes in xiii

PREFACE.

I

England, but it is to be expected that it would be seen to a gi-eater degree amongst the wandering Cree Indians, who have very few opportu- nities of communicating with each other. A few examples may be given. Thus, on the East-Main coast mena is constantly used in the sense of again., but in the Cumberland district, and, I believe, generally, except in James' Bay, it is used for and, Ukbop^ on the East Main, signifies a coat, but in other localities, especially in the Plains, it is universally used for a blanket. Mumatakooseiv, on the East Main, signifies lie boasts, lie is proud, but the same word, as used in other localities, means he is glad, he re- joices. This diversity of meaning applies also to the derivatives of this word.

TEllMl NATIONS.

In many instances there is a diversity observable in the pronuncia- tion of the final syllables, and there is sometimes a difficulty in accu- rately distinguishing the sound. Thus moon and mooivin are frequently used as the terminations of the same noun, as uspiskwasimoon or uspiskwasi- moowin, a pillow, uspisitasimoon or uspisitasimoowin, a footstool. Again, kiihoon and koivun are used in the same words, as seskuhoon or sSskowun, a crutch. In some localities it is very difficult to distinguish between the verbal terminations ow and do, which are indicative respec- tively of the 2nd and the 3rd conjugations, thus, pimiyao or pimiyow, he flies ; papiyao or papiyow, he flies low ; pim6otao or pimootow, he walks.

In some places the passive verbal termination koo is contracted into k, thus, 7iipaskak, he is made to sleep by it, i.e. it makes him sleep ; oochipitik, he is cramped by it, or it gives him the cramp, instead of nipaskakoo, oochipitikoo. I consider these latter forms are the correct ones, as they would be the regular inflections of verbs of the 4th conj.

xiv

PREFACE.

gi'eater ipportu- e given, jense of xcept in 3 a coat, ted for a ',s proud., d, lie re- 3 of this

onimciii- in accu- itly used jiskwasi- ^oot-stooL ihoon or jtingiiish e respec- pimiyow, »otow, he

jtcd into n sleep ; istead of e correct th conj.

to which the above and similur ones belong; thus, ne nipaskahoon, it makes me sleep, he 7iipaskakoon, it makes thee sleep, iiipaskakoo, it makes him sleep, tfec. This is the form given by Mr. Howse in his gi-ammar, and is undoubtedly used in many parts of the country, so that I have uniformly adopted it, and have regarded the simple ^ as a local con- traction.

NOUNS.

It will be observed that the Cree language has no Genders, but a sub- stitute is provided in what have been denominated the animate and inani- mate forms, every noun being considered to belong to one or other of these two classes. This arrangement would be very simple and easy of appli- cation if every object endued with life, or organic structure, were animate, and every thing else inanimate, but this is by no means the case. The rule Is of general application, but there are numerous exceptions for which 1 suppose no very satisfactory reason can be assigned. Thus it is diffi- cult to see why ^lstis, a mitten, should be animate, whilst mich'tcJic, the hand, is inanimate ; why uskik, a kettle, usani, a snow-shoe, nprmi, a pad- dle, and dmekwan, a spoon, should be animate, whilst ooyakun, a pan, muskisin, a shoe, cheman, a canoe, and mookooman, a knife, are lnani7nate. Similar anomalies, however, occur in more cultivated languages, as in French we have un aoidier, a shoe, masculine, une botte, a hoot, feminine ; wn cotiteau, a knife, masculine, une four cliette, a io\\, feminine. In Latin, also, where there is the advantage not possessed in French of having a neuter gender, there are the like inconsistencies, as, arcus, a bow, mascidine, sagitta, an hyvo'^, feminine -, auris, an cur, feminine, oculus, an eye, masculine.

PROPER NAMES.

My intention, when I commenced the compilation of the Dicvionaiy,

XV

ll

IF

PREFACE.

was to collect as many of the Cree names of places as I could, and arrange them by themselves in alphabetical order, but I was subsequently "led to alter my plan. The natives in any particular locality have names for the Fort at which they trade, and for some few of the rivers, lakes, islands, or other important natural features in their immediate vicinity, as also for two or three of the trading Posts near to them, but, beyond this, their geographical nomenclature is very scanty, and their knowledge very- limited, as they have no intercourse with more distant places except in the case of the " tripmen " who pay an annual visit to the d^pot for the district. On this account most of the names are of purely local interest, and would not be known elsewhere. It often happens, too, that the same name is given to different places, so that we have several rivers, lakes and creeks, known as " Jack-fish River," " Moose Lake," " White- fish Creek," &c. However, as the inhabitants, though wandering, are confined to certain districts, but little confusion is likely to arise, as far as they themselves are concerned, but the names of places being thus applicable to more than one locality would render a list of them of but little service to a student of the language. On this account I have not thought it desirable to specify more names than some few of the most important, and these I have inserted in the body of the Work,

VERBS.

The part of the Cree verb which best indicates the inflections is the 3rd pers. sing. pres. indie. In designating the conjugations, I have, in the intninsitive verbs, followed the arrangement of Mr. Howse, who classes them under seven heads, exhibited as follows*

* It will be observed, that in the Grammar, on page 192, where these conjugations are given, the two first, upewand nipow, are by error placed as '2nd and 1st, instead of 1st and 2nd, as is clear from the subsequent pages.

:,

3

XVI

PREFACE.

I arrange ly 'led to js for the Jands, or I also for his, their ige very )xcept in )t for the

interest, that the al rivers,

" White- sring, are se, as far ling thus jm of but have not the most

ins is the idy in the o classes

rations are of Ist and

■i

1. upew, he sits

2. nipow, he sleeps ... . ,. , . j i; - . ,! ,. , .; , 3. pim6otao, he walks . , , ,

, . 4. kitoo, he speaks ,

5. achew, he moves

6. itay^tum, he thinks

7. tukoosin, he arrives

For the teraiination of the 2nd conj. I have adhered to the ot**, as used by Mr. Howse, instead of the moy as adopted by Archdeacon Hunter, as undoubtedly the former is much nearer the exact pronunciation than the latter. In the majority of words the sound is precisely as in the English monosyllables, coiv, now, how, but in some others, or in some parti- cular districts, it may be a little broader ; but as the sound of aw is always, I think, in English, as in the words rmv, maw, saw, these letters entirely fail in conveying the proper Indian pronunciation, and are very apt to mislead the learner of the language.

In the 6th conj. there are many words which make no distinction beween the transitive and the intransitive forms, as, for instance,

itayetum, used as v. i. he thinks, as v. t, he considers it

he is patient, ,, he bears it patiently

he does his duty, he does it as com-

manded he says, he speaks, ,, he declares it

From this want of a distinctive form of the verb, or else, as a substi- tute, the expression of the pronoun for the object, have arisen the common Hudson's- Bay phrases, "/ think it,^' "Ae does nH think it,^^ kc, instead of / think so, he does n't think so, which sound so barbarous to a Speaker of pure English on his first arrival in the country. > ^^< -^ ^ * i :

sepayetum, tipitootum,

wetum.

»

»

w

XVII

I I

PREFACE.

In the case of transitive verbs I have made no classification, but have merely distinguished those that have an animate object from those having an inanimate one. The latter are marked with their respective conjugation 2, 3, or 6, as given above, as they undergo the same inflec- tions as the intrandtive verbs. In the Cree-English Part of the Dic- tionary all transitive verbs are followed by the letters v. t. an. or v. t. in., as the case may be, signifying respectively verb transitive, animate object, and verb transitive, inanimate object ; thus, achehdo, v. t. an., he alters him, achekipuhum, v, t. in. 6., he closes it tightly ; akumehdo, v. t. an., he takes care of him, akumetow, v. t. in. 2, he takes care of it. The brevity observed in Lexicons of other languages, as in Greek, Latin, and French, cannot be adopted in Cree, as it is quite necessary, for the sake of accuracy, to express both tJte agent and the object. I have almost invariably made use of the pronoun in the mnscnline gender, but the feminhie would be equally applicable, as the Cree language makes no distinction. Thus, sakelmo may be rendered either he loves him, or he loves her, or, slie loves him, or sh£ loves her, the proper pronouns intended, both agent and object, being ascertained from the connexion. Thus, also, of all other verbs trans, anim.

It frequently happens that one word in Cree answers to a wlwle sen- tence, in English ; thus, pukustowdhum, he puts it into the water, poostus- tootinuhdo, he puts a cap on him (i. e. on another person). These ex- pressions are not phrases, as they have been erroneously called by some persons, but are single words, and in each of these two given instances, as in numerous others, are verbs capable of undergoing regular inflections, although there is no corresponding English term for them, and conse- quently they have to be rendered by a phrase.

The manner of expressing the meanings of the verbs transitive ani- 7nate will frequently appear strange at first to the student of the language.

xviii

ation, but :om those respective me inflec-

the Dic- )r V. t. in.y nate object,

he alters , V. t. au.y it. The Latin, and •y, for the ve almost r, but the makes no himy or he

intended, 11. Thus,

wlwle sen- r, poostus-

These ex- 1 by some

instances, nflections, md conse-

isitive ani- language.

PREFACE.

Thus, in speaking of a tree, to say ^^ he fells him " is repugnant to the genius of the English, but it seems necessaiy to give this as the rendering of the Cree, in order that the learner may have a clear appreciation of the exact application of the verb. In this casethe noun (tree) is considered as being animate, and consequently the animate form of the verb transi- tive is required.

Instances of the like kind are continually occumng, and, to avoid confusion, I have in all such cases given the pronoun standing for the object in the masculine gender. Thus, kuskikwatao, she sews him, e. g. a niitte?! or a pair of trowsers, both of which are anim. ; tetipinao, slie winds him, e. g. cotton, which is an avim. noun.

The verbs which are usually denominated impersonal I have marked V. imp. Many of these take the anim. form ; thus, kusketawapakisew, he is black (speaking of thread or cotton, which are a7U7ti. nouns) ; koosi- kwapiskoosew, he is heavy (speaking of metal, e. g. a shilling, which is anim.) ; kinwaskoosew, he is long (speaking of a tree, which is aw'mi.).

INDIANIZED ENGLISH.

In some localities the Indians are more inclined to adopt the English names for new articles introduced amongst them than to form fresh terms, or employ coined ones, if made for their use. Thus we have horse, school, church, scissors, pencil, slate, and bislwp, naturalized in some places, whilst in others they are rendered by distinctive Cree terms. The words tea and waistcont seem to be thoroughly incorporated into the language, and adopted in almost all parts of the country. In some words a euphonistic change has taken place ; as, for instance, ayippon, which is a softened pro- nunciation of Hbbon, and the universal term puyuches is no doubt an altered form for breeches. Again, koopan, which is a common word in some parts

of the country, is doubtless the native way of saying cooper, m is sugotv xix

i

' 1

i

cupts,

potatoest/yfc,

prayerse^ao,

ficfyyolewew,

paneyaArww,

pan?w^U',

PREFACE.

(pronounced sJioogow) the method of pronouncing sugar. Other words have received a proper substantive or verbal termination, or, in other ways, have been so altered as to be appropriately called Indianized, Take, for example, the following . . , r ^ . j ^...m

a teacup, i. e. Eng. cup^ and dimin. termination w

potatoes, Eng., with Cree pi. affix.

he says prayers, Eng., with verbal termination

he goes to school, Eng.

a tin pan, Kiig* P^^h united